Wednesday, January 22, 2014

More on New Mexican Slaves/Servants In The Spanish And Mexican Periods

A lot has been written on this subject, most of the writing has been very biased with authors allowing their personal, political and racial views creep into their writings. Add to this the obvious dislike of New Mexicans and the view one comes away with is distorted. Personal likes and dislikes should be left out of "history" books by "historians". Those personal views are best left to articles in magazines and web logs like this one.

Suffice it to say that the slave/servant institution did exist in the period in question in New Mexico. It seems like everyone living in the area was practicing it, New Mexicans, Indians as well as Americans living here at the time.

Some authors would have us believe that New Mexicans were the only ones doing this. That is not the case at all. Taking captives' was another part of warfare during the period. In new Mexico it seems every group, and I mean every group, was taking captives and using them as slaves/servants. The issue is complex and different than the institution of slavery in the southern states of the United States.

The links below are previous posts on here which alluded to captives/slaves/servants;

Now an educated guess on my part. I would venture that if your family has roots in New Mexico, that predates the invasion and annexation of the area by the Americans, you have captives in your background. Hispanic New Mexicans and Pueblo Indians would have Native American captives from one or more of the wild tribes who practiced warfare against New Mexico and its Hispanic or Pueblo Indian populations. The wild tribes of the area, Apache, Comanche, Pawnee, Navajo and Ute would have Hispanic and Pueblo Indian captives in their backgrounds.

The taking of captives in warfare predates the Spanish in the area now called New Mexico. The Spanish were also used to taking captives. To the Spanish, in those days, if you were not Spanish and a Catholic you were fair game in war. In all reality the Spanish needed no further reason for the practice. They thought they were saving your soul, and as such it was permissible.

Sunday, January 5, 2014

La Vida Dura de Maria Manuela Antonia Leyba

Maria Manuela Antonia Leyba was born in Santa Fe December 26, 1788 the daughter of the soldier Salvador Leyba and his wife Maria Francisca Lobato. She was baptized three (3) days later on the 29th of December at the Parroquia de San Francisco de Asis Church by her padrino Alejandro Martín and madrina Teodora Marquez.

On December 21 1804, five (5)  days before he 16th birthdate, she married the soldier Ysidro Gutierrez at La Castrense, La Capilla de Nuestrs Senora de la Luz, the military chapel on the plaza in Santa Fe, the church having been named in honor of Our Lady of Light. The wedding party included witnesses Diego Padilla and Gregorio Escuerdo who were both associated some how with the church as both were witness' for many couples marrying during that period. As padrinos they had Miguel Tenorio and Gertrudis Tenorio. My guess is that Miguel and Gertrudis Tenorio were husband and wife and that Miguel was a soldier like Ysidro.

Ysidro and Maria Manuela had at least two (2)  children;

Jose Rafael Bartolo Gutierrez born in Santa Fe on August 20, 1806 and baptized 3 days later on August 26, 1806 at La Castrense, La Capilla de Nuestrs Senora de la Luz. The baptismal padrinos were Cresensio Bargas and Dorotea Bargas. Again I am guessing that the padrino and madrina were married and most likely Cresencio was a soldier like Ysidro.

Jose Rafael Bartolo Gutierres died as an infant barely eleven (11) months old on July of 1807 and was buried shortly there after on July 22, 1807.

Next, the by now very pregnant, Maria Manuela suffered another great loss, her husband Ysidro Gutierrez was killed by the Apaches en el Campo, "the field" on March 28, 1808 while on an expedition defending the area from Apache raiders. Maria Manuela did not even have the comfort of Ysidro receiving the sacraments, as his being killed in the field of battle far way from home precluded that. This dying with out being able to receive the sacraments were problems of the time and not unheard of, but very distressing for a Catholic wife at best.

On October 28, 1808, seven (7) months to the day after her husband was killed and again in Santa Fe, Maria Manuela had a second son and named him Rafael, in memory of his deceased brother. This naming children in honor of dead siblings was very common in colonial New Mexico. Rafael Gutierrez was baptized 3 days later on October 31, 1808 at La Castrense, La Capilla de Nuestrs Senora de la Luz by his padrino, a man named Jose Tafoya. Young Rafael did not have a madrina for some reason or another.

All of this happened to Maria Manuela before she reached her 20th birthday. She would celebrate her 20th birthdate as a widow and mother of her second son. It was probably not a date where there was any celebrating.

Life went on for Maria Manuela, she would have 3 additional children, all by unknown father(s). These children, two (2) sons and a daughter, were;

  1. Juan Manuel Leyba born in Santa Fe April 19, 1811 and baptized two (2) days later at the Parroquia de San Francisco de Asis church by Pablo Baldez and Josefa Padilla.
  2. Maria Manuela Leyba born in Santa Fe December31, 1812 and baptized a day later on January 1, 1813 at the Parroquia de San Francisco de Asis church by padrino Juan Diego Armijo and madrina Barbara Montoya.
  3. On February 18, 1816 Maria Manuela gave birth to her last son, Salvador Josef Leyba who was baptized two (2) days later on the 20th at the Parroquia de San Francisco de Asis church by Manuela's sister Josefa Leyba. Josefa adopted Salvador Josef then and there. The adoption was probably prearranged.
Maria Manuela herself died in June of 1818 and was buried shortly afterwards on June 9, 1918. She was not yet 30 years of age. Maria Manuela had a very difficult life by any standards.

Had it not been for family she would not have survived to the ripe old age of 29.

NOTE: We do know that Rafael Gutierrez, the second son of Maria Manuela Antonia Leyba and Ysidro Gutierrez, survived. He was married to Josefa de Herrera, the daughter of Tomas de Herrera and Apolonia Garcia on December, 8 1834 in Santa Fe.