Sunday, December 27, 2015

UPDATE - Panocha Para La Natividad - UPDATE

27 Dec 2016 - Made  another batch.... every bit as good as the last one........ NOTE: Watch out with step No. 2, when you add the water to the golden brown sugar....

Note: I made a batch using the recipe above. Excellent panocha, it is just a bit thin so next time I will reduce the water by a couple of cups. The panocha is as good as I have ever tasted.

Saturday, December 26, 2015

Historical New Mexican Hispanic Women - 1540 - 2015

From the book "Great River, The Rio Grande in North American History" written by Paul Horgan we learn that on February 23, 1540 don Francisco Vasquez de Coronado left Mexico City for New Mexico.

 "Three of the soldiers brought their wives. One of these men was a tailor. His wife served as a nurse and seamstress and rode the seven thousand miles with the expedition on a horse. The military company were served by close to a thousand Mexican Indians, many of whom were accompanied by their wives and children. With the main body of the army came the flocks of sheep - over five thousand rams, ewes and lambs. The pace and the distance of the daily marches of the army were determined by how steadily and at what pace those grazing little animals could move. The army brought five hundred head of cattle. Six hundred pack mules carried supplies and equipment. Five hundred and fifty two horses belonged to the soldiers."

New Mexican Hispanic women have been here since 1598. In all reality some were here with Francisco Coronado in 1540. They, like the rest of Coronados people,  did not stay, but they were here. The point being that they have been here doing what needed to be done since then. They have been here at every historic and non historic event. In the background of written history, but they were always there.

A few unusual Hispanic women and their more "famous" American, or otherwise, husbands;

Maria Josefa Jaramillo who was married and the third wife of mountain man and scout Christopher "Kit" Carson. Kit's first two wives were Indian women, one of whom dumped him as soon as she could after "marrying" him. He was known to have been interested in and lived  with another Mexican woman whose name was Antonia Luna at Taos who after having lived some time with Jim Beckworth told Kit that he did not measure up and went back to Jim.

Maria Ygnacia Jaramillo who was the sister of Maria Josefa mentioned above. Maria Josefa was living, sans marriage, with Charles Bent who was appointed the first governor of New Mexico by Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny. Charles met his end on January 19, 1847 at Taos by New Mexican patriots unhappy with the American occupation of the province. Charles Bent was  an out and out racist having riled against Mexicans in his writings, he hated Mexicans and everything they stood for. Not sure why he ended up with  Maria Ygnacia and having at least five children with her. Maybe out of necessity..... who really knows.

The Jaramillo women must not have cared that their husbands detested their people, they may have had low self esteem and this was a way of addressing it. There was an underlying reason for this, maybe financial, but we really don't know.

Charles Bent had an eleven year connection with Maria Ygnacia. She was free to marry and was he, but they never did. You can't tell me that they never married because of her. Do you think she would rather live with the stigma of being unmarried and giving birth to eight children, six of them baptized under her name of "padre no conicido" (father unknown)?

Maria Ygnacia was married and or associated with three different men, one of whom was Charles Bent. She may have been an easy mark for him, for one reason or another.

Antonia Luna who was "married" or lived with several famous and not so famous men. Some were Kit Carson, Jim Beckworth, Bill Williams and finally with William Tharp. Antonia must have been something else. I am not sure this is how she would have liked to be remembered and documented in history.

Maria Elvira Estella Bergere who's  mother was Eloisa Luna, Estella was a "halfbreed" New Mexican and American. Estella married Aldo Leopold, famous in forestry circles and the father of "American Wilderness".

Maria Teodora Lopez was married to fur trapper and mountain man Manuel LeFevre.

Maria Dolores LeFevre, another halfbreed New Mexican was the daughter of Maria Teodora Lopez and Manuel LeFevre was one of several wives of Richard Lacey (Uncle Dick) Wooton of Raton Pass fame.
.......................................................................

Suffice it to say that the great majority of the New Mexican women went unnoticed by the folks who wrote the history. Probably good for them too, as history has been kind to them even if they remained unnoticed and unrecognized. We, their descendants, know better. We get bits and pieces of their lives here and there, but we must generalize.

Wednesday, November 11, 2015

Governor Bent Had it Coming

No man deserved his end and the ways of his end more than the first New Mexican governor after the American occupation of the province, Charles Bent. Everything that happened to him and his, he had coming.

I quote the *book, listed below:

"It was a common opinion of non Catholic Americans in New Mexico that every priest was a corrupt and vicious shepherd, leading a flock of stupid and hypocritical sheep. No one was more violent on the subject than Charles Bent, who wrote about the Mexicans three years before he became their governor."

From the same book I quote Charles Bent himself in his own words, spelling and all:
  • Thare religion consistes intirely in outward show, they have no idea a sinsear devotion, they are taught to belive that thare priestes are the only medadiator betwean the supriem being and themselves, and eaven in this, you can acheave gerat benifits by a lavish present of gold, thare valler consists of Boasting and show whare  thare is no danger. The Mexican caracter is made up of Stupidity, obstinancy, Ignorance duplicity and vanity.
There is no doubt in my mind that the people who assassinated him were New Mexican patriots and New Mexican heroes. New Mexicans and their descendants need shed no tears for "Governor Bent" nor the likes of him.

More on Governor Bent from previous posts on the site, click on the URL below:



*Reference pages 70 and 71 of the book titled " Pueblo, Herdscrabble, Greenhorn, Society on the High Plains, 1832 - 1856" written by Janet Lecompte and published in 1978 by the University of Oklohoma Press.

Saturday, October 24, 2015

Beautiful Old Spanish Song, Used To Be Very Popular In New Mexico

Listen to the beautiful song first:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQTyW0fhj98&feature=share

Este joven a un olivo quiso subir a cortar una rama, pero con tan mala suerte que del olivo cayó. Una niña morena por allí pasó y al niño ayudo.

Al olivo, al olivo, 
al olivo subì. 
Por cortar una rama 
del olivo caí. 
Del olivo caí, 
quién me levantará? 
Una niña morena 
que la mano me da. 
Que la mano me da, 
que la mano me dio, 
una niña morena 
es la que quiero yo. 
Es la que he de querer, 
una niña morena, 
ha de ser mi mujer. 
Ha de ser y será 
esa niña morena 
que la mano me da.


Sunday, October 18, 2015

New Mexico Population Numbers, Past and Present.

In 1793 the count of New Mexicans according to the viceregal archives* was 30,953. A pretty precise number without any breakdown in numbers. The figure does contain the numbers of Pueblo Indians but no numbers for the "wild tribes".


In 1810 Fernando Navarro* placed the population of New Mexico at 34,205. He broke down the total to 20 priests, 10,557 Indians (Pueblo) and 23,628 "castas" or people of mixed breeds no pure Spaniards were noted. This figure does not contain numbers associated with "los Indios Barbaros"

1846 - 45,000 Estimated at the time the Americans conquered and occupied the area. This estimate would include the Pueblo Indians.

The numbers used above include the historical pre American New Mexican population. This includes the El Paso/Juarez area.
1850 - 61,547* "The Census of 1850 was the first taken by the United States in New Mexico, and not notable for its accuracy in regards to New Mexico". These numbers do not include the El Paso area nor any area in southern New Mexico later purchased as a result of the Gadason Purchase.The breakdown here is as follows:
  1. Born in New Mexico, 58,145 - Includes Pueblo Indians but not the "wild tribes".
  2. Born elsewhere in the United States, 722
  3. Foreign born, 2,151
  4. Place of birth unknown, 209
**"Despite the fact that the state usually leads the country in birth rate, The recent large growth must be attributed to migration into New Mexico. This influx has lessened the relative importance of the Spanish and the Indian populations, the distinct ethnic groups within the state."

The population trends 1498 - 1846the year of the coming of the Americans, a period of 248 years show or would otherwise indicate a rise in the number of Hispanos, a decline in the Pueblos and a sharp rise in the wild tribes. The Hispanos would have risen from zero to whatever was here when the Americans annexed the province. The Pueblos were decimated by European disease, the Spanish themselvs and the constant harassment and warfare with the wild tribes. The wild tribes benefited  from new technologies, new food sources and most of all, the introduction of the horse.

The population trends 1846 - 2010, The American period has seen an overall population increase for each of the groups. Hispanos have increased but became less, percentage wise, the same goes for the Pueblos and the "wild tribes". The non Hispanic non Indian (Anglo) population has increased dramatically, from near zero to what it is today at 40.5% of the total. The state was denied statehood until it was ascertained that the Anglo's were in the majority or able to ensure victory at elections.

* Refer to the book titled "New Mexico in 1850: A Military View written by Colonel George Archibald McCall and published by the University of Oklahoma Press at Norman, Oklahoma.

** Refer to the book "New Mexico, A History of Four Centuries," authored by Warren A. Beck and published by the University of Oklahoma Press in 1962.

Tuesday, October 6, 2015

Que Descanse en Paz

Click on the image to make it larger

La Sra. Ida Garcia was a true heroine of all New Mexicans. May she rest in peace.

Tuesday, September 22, 2015

El Principe De Los Comancheros, Jose Piedad Tafoya


Jose Piedad Tafoya was the main Comanchero of all time, trading with the Comanche and Kiowa Indians on the Llano (the Staked Plains) of Western Texas and Eastern New Mexico. As usual when reading about New Mexicans operatiing in Texas we need to be careful with the history as documented by Texans. At the top of the list to be careful of is the hatred of Texans of anything New Mexican and that is especially of Hispano New Mexicans. Second is the Texan habit of embellishing their role and playing down that of any others. Also the "hero" complex that Texan Historians attribute to all things Texan. These things have tainted Texas history from the beginning, it has cost most Texas historians their credibility.

The best source I have found is listed below, The edition should be available at your library, if not ask for an ILL (Inter Library Loan):

Reference pages 39 - 68 of Volume 81, Number 1, Winter 2006 of the publication New Mexico Historical Review. The article  titled "Comanchero, Jose Piedad Tafoya, 1834 - 1913" written by former New Mexico Historic Preservation Officer Thomas Merlan and Dirictor of the Palace of the Governors In Santa Fe, New Mexico Francis Levine. The article generally documents Comanchero activities as well as specifically activities of Jose Piadad Tafoya.

Here is some genealogical information on Jose Piead Tafoya, what is known of his marriages and offspring are highlighted in blue:

Modified Register for Antonio Tafoya

First Generation

1. Antonio Tafoya  was born in New Mexico.

Antonio married Maria Guadalupe Varela . Maria was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

+ 2 M i. Jose Calletano Tafoya  was born in 1813.

Second Generation

2. Jose Calletano Tafoya  (Antonio) was born in 1813 in New Mexico.

Jose married Maria Encarnacion Herrera  daughter of Jose de Herrera and Maria Gertrudes Gallegos. Maria was born in 1817 in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

3 F i. Maria Peregrina Tafoya  was born on 16 Sep 1830 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. She was christened on 10 Oct 1830 in New Mexico.

+ 4 M ii. Jose Piedad Tafoya  was christened on 4 Apr 1834.

+ 5 F iii. Juana Maria Climaca Tafoya  was christened on 29 Mar 1839.

6 M iv. Jose Trinidad Tafoya  was born on 8 Jun 1841 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He was christened on 10 Jun 1841 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

+ 7 M v. Jose Alfonso Tafoya  was born on 27 Jan 1844.

8 F vi. Maria Andrea Tafoya  was born on 17 Jul 1846 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. She was christened on 18 Jul 1846 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.
Maria married Narciso Ortega  on 26 Oct 1863 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Narciso was born in New Mexico.

+ 9 M vii. Jose Reducindo Tafoya  was born on 5 Mar 1851.

10 M viii. Jose Victoriano Tafoya  was born on 21 Sep 1854 in Questa (Villanueva) New Mexico. He was christened on 24 Sep 1854 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.
Jose married Damasia Martín  on 17 Feb 1876 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Damasia was born in New Mexico.

+ 11 F ix. Reducinda Tafoya .

+ 12 M x. Isidro Tafoya  was born in Dec 1859. He died on 24 Aug 1942.

Third Generation

4. Jose Piedad Tafoya  (Jose Calletano, Antonio) was born in La Cuesta (Villanueva), New Mexico. He was christened on 4 Apr 1834 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. 

Jose married (1) Maria de Jesus Perez  on 20 Apr 1863 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Maria was born in New Mexico. She was buried in 1871 in Chaperito, New Mexico. 

They had the following children:

13 M i. Juan Bautista Shepard (Tafoya)  was born on 11 Dec 1854 in New Mexico. He was christened on 4 Jan 1855 in Las Vegas, New Mexico. Juan Bautista Tafoya was adopted by Jose Piedad when he married their mother. Juan Bautista's biological father was Julian Shepard.

14 M ii. Jose de la Cruz Shepard (Tafoya)  was born on 21 Oct 1858 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.  Jose de la Cruz Tafoya was adopted by Jose Piedad when he married their mother. Jose de la Cruz's biological father was Julian Shepard.

Jose married (2) Teresa Gonzales y Baca, a 21 year old mother of three in 1886 or 1892 depending which source you agree with in New Mexico. Teresa was born in Nov 1868 in New Mexico. 

5. Juana Maria Climaca Tafoya  (Jose Calletano, Antonio) was christened on 29 Mar 1839 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

She had the following children:

15 M i. Ruperto Tafoya  was christened on 11 Apr 1858 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

7. Jose Alfonso Tafoya  (Jose Calletano, Antonio) was born on 27 Jan 1844 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He was christened on 28 Jan 1844 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Jose married (1) Ramona Alari  on 13 Nov 1865 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Ramona was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

16 M i. Jose Francisco Tafoya  was born in Chaperito, New Mexico. He was christened on 23 Sep 1867 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

17 M ii. Canuto Tafoya  was born in Chaperito, New Mexico. He was christened on 24 Jan 1870 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.


Jose married (2) Isadora Aragon  on 23 Sep 1872 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Isadora was born on 15 Apr 1859 in Chaperito, New Mexico. She was christened on 16 Apr 1859 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

They had the following children:

18 F iii. Maria Felicita Tafoya  was christened on 12 Dec 1873 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

19 M iv. Eduardo Tafoya  was christened on 10 Dec 1886 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

9. Jose Reducindo Tafoya  (Jose Calletano, Antonio) was born on 5 Mar 1851 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He was christened on 24 Mar 1851 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Jose married Cesaria Marquez  on 17 Apr 1871 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Cesaria was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

20 F i. Maria Tafoya  was christened on 1 May 1875 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

11. Reducinda Tafoya  (Jose Calletano, Antonio).

She had the following children:

21 F i. Emiliana Tafoya  was christened on 31 Aug 1872 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

12. Isidro Tafoya  (Jose Calletano, Antonio) was born in Dec 1859 in New Mexico. He died on 24 Aug 1942 in New Mexico.

Isidro married Susana Apodaca . Susana was born in 1858 in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

22 M i. Candido Tafoya  was born in Jul 1885 in New Mexico.

23 M ii. Procopio Tafoya  was born in Jun 1888 in New Mexico.

24 F iii. Ana Tafoya  was born in Feb 1892 in New Mexico.

25 F iv. Sinforosa Tafoya  was born on 7 Oct 1899 in New Mexico. She died on 15 Jan 1995 in Denver, Colorado. She was buried in Mount Olivet Cemetery, Wheatridge, Colorado.

Sinforosa married Francisco Arellanes  son of Florencio Arellanes and Maria Juana Lopez. Francisco was born on 4 Nov 1888 in Chaperito, New Mexico. He was christened on 12 Nov 1888 in Our Lady of Sorrows, Las Vegas, New Mexico. He died on 19 Jul 1981 in Denver, Colorado.

For some interesting "stuff" click on the links below, just remember that Jose Piedad Tafoya was THE Comanchero.:

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n_pLleIU41A

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hC2gThsfTqg

Note: Google "Jose Piedad Tafoya" for an enlightening story of an amazing man. For the real story, refer to the New Mexico Historical Review mentioned above.

Sunday, September 13, 2015

One More Post On Pervasive Racism In Territorial New Mexico

Anna Mary McKee (June 9,1865 - January 7, 1948) A Presbyterian Home Missionary in Mora and Taos, New Mexico in 1884 and 1885 was probably the very best example of overt and covert racism by Americans who came to New Mexico after the American annexation of the province. This was from an educated, religious, young woman sent here to teach with the expectation of converting her New Mexican students from Catholicism to Presbyterians.

The racism was so prevalent and extensive that it was normal for Americans to feel the way they did against what they saw as inferior Mexicans whom they identified as "greasers". It was not uncommon, it was the rule rather than the exception to be racist. Americans only hid these feelings when addressing New Mexicans, not when talking to or otherwise communicating with each other.

Anna Mary McKee would write letters back home about her experiences in New Mexico. The letters reflect the deep seated racism amongst "Americans" in New Mexico at the time. The racism was not something they acquired when they got to New Mexico, it was a racism that they bought with them from the "states".

A prime example, and there are many in her letters, is the wedding of one of her pupils, Jose Blas Salazar the son of Jose Rafael Salazar and Maria Josefa Espinosa with Elisa Struck, the daughter of George David Struck and Maria Josefa Mondragon in Taos on December 31, 1884. Reference the quotes below on the marriage invitation and marriage ceremony:

"Our oldest scholar was to be married and we had received invitation in Spanish. His name is Senor Blas Salazar and his bride is Senorita Luisa Strock. We dressed in our best "bib and tucker" and went. We nearly expired, the whole affair was too ludicrous for anything. As good as a circus, indeed much better. The bride, a perfect beauty really, was dressed too absurdly for anything. She wore white jewelry and a long veil but was bedecked with bows and crimson flowers. We went to the house, the groom came down from the ball room to receive us, for you know it is an immense honor for Americans to attend their fandango's."

"The house had only a mud floor and the tables had no cloth, our wine was served in black bottles, one at each plate. Alice and I congratulated Blas and he answered our speech with an "all right". You may believe we had hard work to keep from laughing in his face."

Another example from another letter:

"In Mora the priest charged a poor man $25 for saying mass for the soul of his favorite mule which had died and, as the priest said, was suffering in Purgatory. The priest actually stood in the doors of the corrals and baptized the sheep, hogs and other animals".

And yet some more"

"Speaking of the "Greaser", let me tell you something about him. To begin with, he evidently endeavors to adapt himself to his surroundings and render himself as inconspicuous as possible, his garments are mud colored and he lives in a mud house. The Greaser has a constitutional aversion to water and seems to take a special delight in dirt. The most impressive about him, except his costume, is his odor, Words fail me."

The image she paints of herself in these letters to her parents is that of a first class hypocrite religious self righteous racist. And we must take into account that there letters were written to her father, William B. McKee, a Presbyterian minister and to her mother. She came voluntarily to teach and convert New Mexicans, Mexican Greasers were the primary targets of these educational and conversion efforts on the part of Eastern missionaries who flocked to New Mexico after the 1846 invasion and occupation by the Americans.

The quotes come from the New Mexico Historical Review, Volume 79, Number 1, Winter 2004. The article is titled "I Feel as if I Were on Some Other Planet" The New Mexico Correspondence of Presbyterian Missionary Anna Mary McKee, 1884 - 1885. The article is written by Les Valentine the University Archivist at the University Library of the University of Nebraska at Omaha.

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

Nun who stood up to Billy the Kid faces sainthood test. Some "Cowboy History Included".


Note: It has been proven that she could not have "faced down" Billy the Kid. Anyway, the information below comes from the Santa Fe, New Mexican. It proves the cowboy history folks like to believe, and former Santa Fe Archbishop Michael Sheehan who is the one who started this effort seems to be just another cowboy wannabe.

Sister Blandinas 1948 book "At the End of The Santa Fe Trail" published by the Bruce Publishing Company in Milwaukee, Wisconsin is a book mostly about Sister Blandina's writings back east to her sister. She never intended them to be published, at least it does not seem so. Personally I think she wanted to make her life appear interesting to her sister and embellished her "heroic" accounts.  

If they make her a saint, so be it. But she liked to exaggerate her accomplishments to the folks she wrote the letters which are the basis of her book. But even I, have to admit that is does make for interesting reading...... 

        Posted: Tuesday, August 25, 2015 3:18 pm | Updated: 4:50 pm, Tue Aug 25, 2015.
ALBUQUERQUE — An Italian-born nun who confronted Billy the Kid, calmed angry mobs and helped open New Mexico territory hospitals and schools faced her first test for the long road to sainthood on Tuesday.

Supporters and researchers presented their case before the Archdiocese of Santa Fe at a ceremonial "first inquiry" in Albuquerque on why Sister Blandina Segale should become a saint. The public inquiry, headed by former Archbishop Michael Sheehan, was aimed at determining if there was enough evidence to move her case through the largely secret process at the Vatican. Witnesses said Segale fought against the cruel treatment of American Indians and sought to stop the trafficking of women as sex slaves. They also testified that in death, Segale has helped cancer patients and poor immigrants who have prayed to her for help.

Victoria Marie Forde of the Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati said documents showed Segale went out of her way to provide assistance to Italian-American immigrants and protect Mexican Americans facing violence in western territories.

"Sister Blandina as a canonized saint will lead and strengthen thousands of others to see that they, too, can fight injustice with compassion and untiring ingenuity," she said.

Last year, the archdiocese received permission from the Vatican to open her sainthood cause. It's the first time in New Mexico's 400-year history with the Roman Catholic Church that a decree opening the cause of beatification and canonization has been declared in the state, church officials said.
Segale, a nun with the Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati, came to Trinidad, Colorado, in 1877 to teach poor children and was later transferred to Santa Fe, where she co-founded public and Catholic schools.

During her time in New Mexico, she worked with the poor, the sick and immigrants. She also advocated on behalf of Hispanics and Native Americans who were losing their land to swindlers.
Her encounters with Old West outlaws later became the stuff of legend and were the subject of an episode of the CBS series "Death Valley Days." The episode, called "The Fastest Nun in the West," focused on her efforts to save a man from a lynch mob.

But her encounters with Billy the Kid remain among her most popular and well-known Western frontier adventures.

According to one story, she received a tip that The Kid was coming to her town to scalp the four doctors who refused to treat his friend's gunshot wound. Segale nursed the friend to health, and when Billy went to Trinidad to thank her, she asked him to abandon his violent plan. He agreed.
Tales she wrote in letters to her sister later became the book "At the End of the Santa Fe Trail."
Peco Chavez, a lawyer who investigated historic claims about Segale stopping a mob attack, said he found evidence the event occurred, but documents couldn't verify if Segale intervened.
"But she was in Trinidad at that time," he said.

Later, Segale founded St. Joseph's Hospital in Albuquerque before returning to Cincinnati in 1897 to start Santa Maria Institute, which served recent immigrants.

Her work resonates today, with poverty, immigration and child care still being high-profile issues, said Allen Sanchez, president and CEO for CHI St. Joseph's Children in Albuquerque, a social service agency Segale founded.

Officials say determining whether Segale qualifies for sainthood could take up to a century. The Vatican has to investigate her work and monitor for any related "miracles."
Those miracles could come in the form of healings, assistance to immigrant children detained at the U.S. border or some other unexplained occurrences after devotees pray to her, officials said.

Monday, August 24, 2015

Nombres En Nuevo Mejico Y La Sagrada Familia

There were numerous individuals named Jesus Maria y Jose, many of them, in the historical period in New Mexico. There were others named Jose Maria, Jesus Maria, Jose Jesus and Jesus Jose. This is not to mention that about 30% of the males, me included, has the name Jose attached, almost like a title instead of a name. The women had Maria attached the same way the men had Jose. There were many Jesusas, Maria Jesusas and Jesusa Maria's as well as Josefa and Josefina's and Maria Josefina's and Jesusa Josefa's.... You get the picture..


When the Americans got here in force, after the American conquest and occupation of the province they were surprised and disgusted that so many "debased" (their words) individuals would be given these names, especially when it seemed to the Americans that everyone had one name or the other. Their disgust with the names comes across real clear when you read the history. They did not appreciate our ancestors devotion to the Holy Family, especially the "Savior's" name itself. On occasion a criminal would show up with one of these names that the Americans found sacrilegious. That would get the writers of history all in a tizzy.


Sort of funny when we look back at it. At the time it was not so funny, especially when it would get the Americans to writing their real thoughts about our ancestors.


Reminds me of the bumper sticker with different meanings for Spanish speakers and American Christians. JESUS SAVES and JESUS SAVE are almost identical and in Spanish America everyone wants to know what Jesus knows.

Saturday, August 15, 2015

Those Who Passed Away in Abluquerque! One Days Obituaries. Changed Demographics, Again!


New Mexico, born and raised - Our state bird

From the Albuquerque Journal on August 15, 2015;

1) Bachis - Born in Albuquerque, his mother was a Hispanic New Mexican.
2) Burke - No indication of place of birth nor parents.
3) Durbin-Gonzales - Born in Denver, Colorado and married to a Hispanic, New Mexican.
4) Mora - No indication of where she was born or who her parents were, my guess is she married a local guy named Mora otherwise her New Mexican family would be noted.
5) Morrison - No indication of where he was born or who his parents were,
6) Myers - Lived in Albuquerque at the time he passed away.
7) Rowden - Lived in Albuquerque at the time he passed away.
8) Thomson - Lived in New Mexico and was originally from Port Chester, New York.
9) Wiska - Born in Chicago, Illinois in 1929.
10) Zak - Born in 1938 in Brooklyn, New York.

I find it odd that only individual No. 1, Mr. Bachis has a mother that was native to New Mexico while No. 3, Mrs. Durbin-Gonzales and No. 4, Mrs Mora appear to have been from somewhere else and married New Mexicans.

Aside of the fact that Mr. Bachis is the only one with any roots in New Mexico at all it is also interesting to note that not a single New Mexican born, 100% New Mexican passed away and/or had an obituary in the Albuquerque Journal today.

Now before anyone accuses me of racism or something else let me state that while my ancestors were all from New Mexico, I personally was born in Denver, Colorado and am married to a foreigner, at least foreigner as far as being from New Mexico goes.

Sunday, July 12, 2015

Unusual Terms in New Mexican Baptismal Records



Padres, no conosidos - Unknown parents.... It is hard for me to believe that an infant of unknown parentage would be baptized. It could be that the parents were known and the priest was trying to protect the parents. But it was not unheard of for this term to be used for children abandoned at the church for whatever reason. Sort of like "hijo de la iglesia" listed below.

*Espuestos - That some of the "espuestos" were indeed "foundlings", and possibly the victims of poverty, is certainly not excluded. Undoubtedly some of the so called "espuestos" were children of captive Indian women fathered by their masters or older household members. Because of the local social stigma associated with illegitimacy it is likely that in most instances some of these vague terms were used euphemistically. It served to keep illegitimacy managable, especially in church records.

Hijo(a) Espurio(a) - Bastard child of.... The archaic term  Espurio(a) literally means bastard. Usually used when the mother of the bastard child was identified.

Hijo(a) Natural - Nicer way of saying bastard child of..... The same meaning as espurio(a) except it has a softer ring after the centuries.

Hijo(a) ligitimo(a) - Legitimate child of......

De la nacion de "_______" - Belonging to the Indian nation of..... This tern was used when baptizing Indians of known backgrounds. When the Spanish priest knew where the Indian child came from. Indian children were commonly integrated into Hispanic New Mexican households.

Hijo(a) de la Iglesia - Son or daughter of the church..... Who knows what this meant. Does not necessarily mean a priesthood holder had to be the father. It could simply mean the child was raised by the church. Often times when they would be abandoned or left in care of the church. Although every now and then it was common for church leaders to have children out of wedlock like the case with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.

Hijo(a) de "Gaspar" y "Rosa", No last name given - Son or daughter of Gaspar and Rosa with no last name given for the parents...... These children were, in most cases, children of Indians who for one reason or another did not have last names. In most cases the Indian child being baptized would be assigned the last name of the "padrino".

*NOTE: Some information comes from the New Mexico Historical Review, Volume 70, July 1995, Number 5. An article there titled " Analysis of Deaths in New Mexico's Rio Abajo during the late Spanish Colonial and Mexican Periods, 1793 - 1846 written by Oswaldo G. Baca.

Monday, July 6, 2015

Being A Spy In New Mexico During the Mexican/Fur Trapper Era, 1820 - 1846.

It was easy, very easy. Mexico in general and New Mexico in particular were easy targets, easy to spy against and easy and ready to be invaded.  There were a lot of spies. Most all of the "fur trappers" from the "states" were spies passing information back to the authorities in the United States, either personally during visits back or in many other ways. Some, if not all, of the traders associated with the "Santa Fe Trade" were also spies. How do we tell who were the trappers? Who were spies? Read the accounts of the folks who came with the Army of the West. Read some of the accounts of the trappers themselves, that is if they could read or write, which most could not. They were every bit as ignorant and unschooled and uneducated as those they were spying on, probably more so.

Christopher "Kit" Carson,
Samuel Magoffin,
Richens "Uncle Dick" Wooten,
"Governor" Charles Bent

The list of spies is actually quite large, I could go on and on. The spies included some of our New Mexican ancestors, the Oteros being the best example. Many of these spies were headquartered in Taos and they did pay the price for their treachery against New Mexico. The names of some are etched in history as some of the political appointees in the aftermath of the occupation and prior to the rebellion by the folks in Taos.

Bent's Fort just over the Arkansas River in what is now Colorado was a nest of spies, spying against New Mexico and also against the Indians. But that is another story altogether.

These spies were spying for the Unites States, it  really does not matter how a person looks at the conquering, occupation and annexation of the New Mexican province by the United States in 1846. It does not matter if, in retrospect, you agree or disagree with it, it does not matter if you think it was a good thing or a bad thing and it does not matter if you think it was a moral or immoral thing for the United States to annex the province.

The bottom line is that these folks mentioned were spies pretending to be friends of the Mexican Republic and New Mexicans. Some were even married to Hispanic New Mexican women, some were Mexican citizens and others even converted to the Catholic faith as part of their "cover". Christopher "Kit" Carson is THE prime example.

There were non New Mexicans, mostly German and French, in the province who were not spies, but very few of them. Maybe one or two of the American trappers were not carrying information back to the "states".

In all reality these folks were spies. Spies with a capitol S. As such, it really all depends on how you feel about spies, sneaks and outright liars. I imagine there are many things that come into play when looking at the subject.

Friday, June 26, 2015

How to Deal With "Unclaimed" Relatives in Our Trees

The view in early spring driving between Raton, NM and Cimarron, NM
How do we deal with "unclaimed" relatives in our "trees". The proverbial red headed stepchild? I do not mean how do we deal with them in real life, I mean how do we deal with this information in our charts, our genealogical family trees?

For us it all depends on the source, sometimes information on unclaimed individuals was common knowledge, sometimes the information was just there and we bumped into it by accident, sometimes someone let's us in on the "secret".

We always look at the source of the information before adding or subtracting the individual from our database. It also causes us to go looking for the evidence and if it is there we add the individual if not I may keep the information and wait to see if some additional information will show up.

We have been at this, genealogy, for a long, long, time. We work as a team, we rarely work at this alone. Both of us combing this book or that book or deciding where the information we need my be had. I input the names into the database and Donna keeps me honest. The database we maintain now contains over 26,000 names, somehow all connected to my sons. That is a lot of data and folks would be surprised at what information we bump into.

Both Donna and I work at compiling the information, sometimes alone but most likely together. We spend some time most days on the subject, sometimes a little time other times several hours and sometimes the whole day. It all depends what it is we are after. We have traveled to west Texas to Southern Colorado and points in Kansas, Oklahoma and Nebraska in search of information. Some places in Minnesota and Wisconsin have also been visited, as some of her family comes from that area. We actually moved and lived in both Minnesota and Wisconsin, retracing some ancestral footsteps of her people

Anyway, one piece of information on an unclaimed relative just came into our possession via a comment on one of the posts here on this weblog. That has begun a new quest for information on someone who we knew about but did not know that she had been married and had children. In other words we knew about her and some of her ancestors but knew/know zero about her descendants. But someone knows something about the matter, somewhere the information is waiting to be found. We will see what comes up for Maria Abrana Lucero AKA Maria Abrana Ebel.

Sunday, June 14, 2015

New Mexican chained to a huge rock

Johnson Mesa in Colfax County New Mexico

A guy died and arrived in heaven at the pearly gates. St. Peter advises he can proceed in. As he does he sees a  man in chains chained to a huge rock looking beaten. The guy walks up to God standing next to him and asks him why is this guy chained to the rock.

God tells him the reason he is chained is because the person is a New Mexican.

The guy then asks God what does that have to do with it.

God tells him that it is spring in New Mexico after some rains, the flowers are out and the grass is green on the hill sides, the iris are in bloom and if we don't chain them down they will all go back.

Wednesday, June 3, 2015

Grifos y tecatos in New Mexico

Reading an article (study) in the April 1981 edition of the New Mexico Historical Review titled "Guns and Butter, Albuquerque Hispanics, 1940 - 1975". Very interesting article and addresses the illegal drug problems "Hispanics" have in New Mexico. I have always wondered if "grifos" who are marijuana users or "tecatos" who use heroin or other hard drugs have always been the pox on New Mexican society that they are now. I have found no reference to these drugs in historical records. There are many references to alcohol use in the record. Not only by "Hispanic" New Mexicans but "anglos" as well as Indians.

The article (study) states that prior to the WWII drug use was minimal in New Mexico but increased dramatically when workers and soldiers started arriving back from the Ft. Bliss government facility in the El Paso area and also from overseas and the shipyards in the west coast, particularly Los Angles, California. They had been hooked, one way or another, while away from home.

Later it increased with heroin and opium users arriving back from Korea and Viet Nam. It calls this phenomena the "victims not only of hostilities but also the derangements of war".

Today the use of all types of illegal drugs by all segments of society, is rampant in New Mexico with some calling for the legalization of this or that drug as a cure all for the problems we have which are caused by people who are addicted.

Any way, if you can find a copy of the publication at your local library, it makes for enlightening and interesting reading.

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

Banana Cream Pie In Rowe, New Mexico in the middle 1950's

My cousin and I were on our way to the river about a mile away from town to fish, or swim, or both when we heard someone behind us..... We went into the forest and hid while they went by. The property was private, belonging to the actress Greer Garson and her millionaire husband "Buddy" Fogelson.  It was part of the old Los Trigos Land Grant which was lately owned by Jane Fonda. Anyway, we did not want to get caught fishing or swimming there but the odds of that happening were slim to none as we were experts at hiding in the adjacent woods.

Anyway, it was an "anglo" couple with some small kids who were behind us. I do not know if they were sneaking in too or if they had permission to be or go there. It did not matter, we let them pass and then followed them out of curiosity. Just to see what they were up to. They got to an area and "set up" the spot. Picnic basket and a tablecloth to cover the ground before they all went down about 100 yards to the river.

Opportunity was knocking and we decided my cousin would be the lookout while I went down to see what they had set out. Just looking really, at least I recall that was what I was thinking at the time. Anyway, I opened the basket and lo and behold a funny looking pie was there. Never seen a pie with all white on the top before. I dipped my finger to taste it and the taste was out of this world. I took the pie and some plastic spoons and high tailed it to where my cousin was waiting.

My first taste of banana cream pie.... God sent it to us, I just knew it. My forced church attendance was paying off right then. It was the best thing, outside of panocha for la semana santa, that I had ever tasted. We took off to the ole swimming hole to swim without waiting to see what the white folks did when they found the pie missing. I still don't know if they figured it out or if the ole man blamed the woman for forgetting the pie.

We did not know what type of pie it was, just that it was good. The next time I tasted banana cream pie again was in Nebraska one summer while traveling through many years later. Now when I have a piece, I remember back...

Friday, May 22, 2015

New Mexicans surrounded by hostile enemies

Fredrick Remington, Mexican Sheepherder tortured by the Apaches.

The Hispanic and Pueblo Indian New Mexicans of the Spanish (1598 - 1821) and Mexican (1821 - 1846) era's were surrounded by hostile tribes and had to fight day and night on all fronts. The Navajo on the north and west, the Ute on the north and east, the Comanche and Pawnee on the east and the various subdivisions of Apache to the south.

In all reality the siege by hostile Indians lasted well past the American occupation and annexation of the province into the late 1870's. But the Spanish and Mexican era's were particularly difficult as the area had a small population and even smaller financial resources.

The 1850 U.S. Federal Census lists 61,547 persons. This was 4 years after the American conquest, occupation and annexation of the New Mexican province. By this time there were at least 5,000 - 6,000 Americans in New Mexico. there were probably 10,000 Pueblo's as the "savage tribes" mentioned were not part of the census. That leaves about 45,000 or so New Mexican Hispanos or Mexicans as our ancestors were known then.

The 1784 El Paso Spanish Census* lists 4,091 total "Hispanos" in the district. men were 1,220, women were 1223 boys were 820 and girls were 828. so the men comprised about 29% of the population.

We need to keep in mind that El Paso was part of New Mexico at the time and would remain so through the Mexican Period. The population in other New Mexican districts would most probably breakdown similarly by percentage.

So if the Hispanic/Mexican population was about 45,000 in 1850 we can estimate the "fighting" population in 1846 was about 29% of the 45,000 or a little over 15,000 men. If we subtract a figure to represent the men too old to be effective in war we probably end up with 11,000 to 12,000 men  capable of "bearing arms". The Pueblos were also involved in the defense of the province. 

These 11,000 - 12,000 men plus whatever number of the Pueblos assisted had to defend all of the area where they lived and their flocks and herds of animals where ever they grazed. Mostly up and down the Rio Grande but there were other places where Hispanos/Mexicans resided. When you consider or ponder the numbers of "hostiles" or "savages" that is quite a feat. A feat that the "Americanos" would have had trouble with.

As for hostile or savage Indians? Well, we do know that it is estimated that in the 1860's during the removal of this tribe to Bosque Redondo there were 12,000 to 15,000 hostile Navajos. The numbers of Apaches, Comanches, Utas, Pawnees and other Indios del Norte is not known. Neither are the numbers of hostiles that resided in the area south of El Paso.

Either way, New Mexicans and their Pueblo allies did a great job of the defense of the province. These defenders are our real heroes,  our "founders". To these defenders we owe our gratitude. The threat then was close, real and terrible. 

*Refer to the October 1977 New Mexico Historical Review article titled The Population of the El Paso Area - A Census of 1784 written by W.H. Timmons.

Tuesday, May 5, 2015

Como se dice? Unos cuantos dichos favoritos de me joventud.


My mother used to use this one, "Se hase el pendejo para comer con las dos manos." for someone playing dumb.

My grandmother when we as kids asked her "que es" she would respond "una punta para los preguntones." We were asking too many questions.

En la tierra de el siego, el tuerto es rey.

When asked como esta(s), "como un perrito millionario". Doing just fine.

Waiting for some undeserved something, "Esperando el bien de dios envuelto en una tortilla."

My grandmother used to say about ghosts that "No le tengo miedo a los muertos, solamente a los vivos."

Monday, May 4, 2015

Pobre Nuevo Mejico, Tan Lejos del Cielo y Tan Cerca de Tejas.

"Pobre Nuevo Mejico, Tan Lejos del Cielo y Tan Cerca de Tejas."

Poor New Mexico, so far from heaven and so close to Texas. Manuel Armijo, the Last New Mexican Governor prior to the American occupation hit the nail on the head when he uttered this pearl of wisdom.

In New Mexico today Texans escape from the heat and the dreariness of the Llano Estacado and come to the mountains of New Mexico by the tens of thousands every weekend. If you travel between Raton and Clayton over 90 % of the traffic is from Texas. The same goes on the road between Roswell and Tularosa. A good portion of the Texans also head into the mountains of Southern Colorado. Any place really, any place other than Texas.

The towns of Eagle Nest, Angel Fire and Red River in Northern New Mexico and also Ruidoso and Cloudcroft in Southern New Mexico are populated by about 95% Texans. Texans catering to other Texans. Sort of odd to spend time in these towns, islands of Texans in New Mexico. And the extreme eastern part of New Mexico is called little Texas as in some cases there are more Texans there than New Mexicans or folks from anywhere else.

New Mexicans have had a distrust of Texans since the Americans settled there (Texas) swore allegiance to the Mexican Republic then turned on Mexico, declared their own republic and tried to invade New Mexico from there several times after their "independence". Sort of hard to trust them after the scheme that they pulled off with the support of the Americans.

We have been going into the Texas Panhandle, especially Amarillo since we used to travel I-40 when coming home from points north and east. I Like Amarillo, easy to get around in and lots of antique shops on old Route 66. I also like to travel the panhandle as this is the part of the llano our New Mexican ancestors used for several hundred years before modern Texas came into being. Sort of gives a person perspective of what life used to be like in New Mexico.

Wednesday, April 29, 2015

Maria Viviana Martín

NOTE: The following was copied from the publication "Wagon Tracks" Which is a publication of the Santa Fe Trail Association. Please excuse the formatting errors.

Viviana's Three Husbands.


Maria Viviana Martín became the wife of three different Santa Fe Trail travelers. Each of her husbands was born in Europe, the first, James Bonney, was born in England of Irish Catholic parents; Daniel Eberle, the second, was born in Switzerland; and Friedrich (Frank) Metzgar, the third, was born in Germany. Each settled in New Mexico while it was a province of Mexico or very shortly thereafter. More specifically, each of the men in Viviana's life chose to settle along the Mora River in newly developing communities, much influenced by the nearby Santa Fe Trail. Until well into the 1820s and even early 1830s, this area was considered to be too dangerous to settle because of the ever-present Plains Indians, particularly the Apaches, Comanches, and Kiowas, who fiercely resisted settlements east of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.

All three of Viviana's husbands were actively involved with the Santa Fe Trail traffic and trade and each one made multiple trips across the plains freighting goods for sale. And all three of them became merchants in New Mexico, albeit on quite different scales.

  Viviana Martin and James Bonney. 

Viviana probably met James Bonney in 1844 or early 1845. This was the time that James Bonney was separating from his wife Juana Mascarenas and their three children. There is a story that Viviana's family was not pleased and was even alarmed when Bonney began paying attention to and courting teenage Viviana. To understand this reaction, it is useful to know something about the beliefs and 'practices regarding marriage and sexuality in eighteenth-and nineteenth-century New Mexico.

In writing of this, Ramon Gutierrez has noted that "Women were the things honorable men guarded most intensely in their households."Viviana's family undoubtedly was aware of Bonney's
existing family, as the Martin home was not far from the Bonney settlement. At stake, if the relationship advanced, was not only Viviana's future but also the family honor.

Viviana, who must have been flattered by the attention from an older, well-established man, was removed by her family from the Mora Valley and proximity to James Bonney and taken across the Sangre de Cristo Mountains to stay with relatives. This gambit proved unsuccessful. Apparently, James Bonney learned " where Viviana had been taken, followed her there, and brought her back to his home near the confluence of the Mora and Sapello rivers.

Viviana was soon pregnant and, in March 1846, gave birth to son Ramon. Later that year, she was present when General Stephen Watts Kearny and the Army of the West arrived at the Bonney settlement on August 13. Indeed, in his description of the arrival of the troops there after a journey of 775 miles across a landscape without a single permanent dwelling, Major William H. Emory, in a probable reference to Viviana, noted that "The first object I saw was a pretty Mexican woman, with clean white stockings, who very cordially shook hands with us and asked for tobacco.

James Bonney was killed by Indians in October 1846 along the Mora River near Dog Canyon, not far from his home, leaving behind Viviana and seven-month-old son Ramon. Having lost her husband, Viviana took her infant son and returned to her parents in the Mora Valley some 15 or 20 miles from the Bonney settlement. She never made any claim to the land and improvements James Bonney left behind, and much of it was later reclaimed by Bonney's three children with Juana Mascarenas.

Viviana Martin and Daniel Eberle.

Daniel Eberle (Ebel, Ebell) 26 is an obscure figure in history, known primarily from the family he left behind. He was born in Switzerland about 1798, immigrated to the United States, and somehow made his way to the Missouri frontier and arrived in New Mexico over the Santa Fe Trail, probably during the 1840s.

Family lore indicates that Daniel was a successful man, operating a trading business with goods he transported over the Santa Fe Trail and, like many other such traders, lived on and operated a farm and ranch. Itis not known just how and when Viviana and Daniel Eberle (Ebel) got together. After James Bonney's death in October 1846, Viviana was living in the Mora Valley near where Daniel Eberle was established.

Viviana and Daniel had become a couple by the fall of 1848 as their first child, Leonor, was born in June 1849. Two more children were born, Juan Andres in 1850 and Maria Marta in 1854. Frustratingly, the family is not found in the 1850 census records for New Mexico Territory; it seems that this first United States census for New Mexico missed the people in the Mora Valley entirely.

The 1860 census shows Viviana again living with her father, Bernardo, and with her children, Ramon Bonney and the three Ebels. This record identified all of, them with the surname Martinez. Daniel Eberle (Ebel) does not appear in this 1860 census. He was killed prior to that time, leaving Viviana, once again, a widow with young children. Few details are known about Daniel's death. He had left his home in the Mora Valley and was on his way to join a wagon train headed for Missouri when he was killed. A family story indicates that he was carrying a significant amount of gold to purchase goods and was killed during a robbery.

Only two documents have been found which contain his name. The first is a baptismal record from Santa Gertrudes Catholic Church in Mora for youngest daughter Maria Marta, dated February 9, 1856, with parents listed as "Gartien Eberley" and Maria Viviana Martin. The death of Eberle must have occurred shortly after this happy event. Later, the church record created when oldest daughter Leonor married Andreas Laumbach indicates that she was the daughter of the deceased Daniel Ebel and Maria Viviana Martin.

Viviana Martin and Fredriech (Frank) Metzgar. 

As noted earlier, in 1860, Viviana was living with her father, Bernardo, and her Bonney and Eberle (Ebel) children. However, in this record, in addition to those members of the household already noted, there was also present (Maria) Dolores, age three, who is Viviana's daughter  with Frank Metzgar. This indicates that Viviana began her relationship with Frank Metzgar very soon after Daniel Eberle's death.

In a later court deposition, Viviana said that she and Metzgar ended their seventeen- year relationship in March 1875, indicating that the relationship began in 1857. It appears that Viviana and Metzgar did not live together during their seventeen-year relationship. During most of this period, Viviana and her children lived on and took care of a ranch property belonging to Metzgar, while Metzgar maintained a separate home in Mora near his store.

Metzgar would come frequently to the ranch and would stay there for periods of two days to a week during each visit. In addition to Dolores (later called Lola), the couple had two more daughters, Maria Josephita, born in 1865, and Maria Isabella, born in 1867.

Viviana's Mother, Apolonia Gutierrez, and Frank Metzgar. 

At about the time Viviana was establishing a relationship with her second husband, Daniel Eberle, Viviana's mother had become estranged from her husband, Bernardo Martin, and had begun a relationship with Frank Metzgar. This relationship led to the birth of a daughter, Juanita Metzgar, born in 1849; i.e., the same year that Viviana's first child with Daniel Eberle was born. It is unclear exactly how long Apolonia's relationship with Metzgar lasted, but clearly it was over by the time Viviana, herself, became the wife of Metzgar in about 1857.

The result of these two relationships was the unusual situation whereby Apolonia's daughter with Metzgar, Juanita, was not only a half-sister to Viviana but also a half-sister to Viviana's own daughters, Dolores, Josephita, and Isabella.

Metzgar's Wealth and the Resulting Contention Over It. 

In the 1860 census for Mora County, New Mexico, Frank Metzgar is listed as 41 years old, born in Prussia, a merchant with real estate worth $30,000; he was probably the richest person in Mora County at the time. Locals referred to him as 'el Aleman' because of his German background; as a prominent businessman, he was known to all.

In 1860, he was living in a household with three clerks who worked in his mercantile business, which he had established in Mora in 1849. Much of what is known about Metzgar comes from court records. Following his. death in February 1885 at age 66, Viviana and her children filed a lawsuit against Henry Korte, a German immigrant like Frank Metzgar, who had in the 1870s became a business partner of Metzgar and was administrator of the estate.

To complicate matters, Korte was also the husband of Viviana's half-sister, Juanita Metzgar. The lawsuit was an attempt by Viviana and her children to gain the share of Metzgar's estate to which they felt entitled. In various statements filed by attorneys in behalf of Viviana and her children in this court case, Metzgar's holdings are described: Metzgar "was possessed of a large estate consisting of land, money, personal property and chattels located in the Territory of New Mexico and the State of Missouri valued at least $100,000."

He had "livestock consisting of  cattle, horses, mules, burros, hogs, sheep and other domestic animals amounting in value to 40 or 50 thousand dollars." In 1881, Metzgar had "sold 4,087 cattle." Also, he had "farming implements of husbandry together with a large amount of grain of all kinds and fruit."

Much of the grain and fruit was sold at nearby Fort Union after it was established in 1851. And there were "large amounts of goods, wares and merchandise which were at the store and mercantile business as well as notes, due bills, evidence of indebtedness, outstanding accounts and other obligations." In addition, there were "several thousand acres, various houses, edifices, barns, stables, granaries and improvements including a large amount of fencing."

Finally, there were "several thousand fruit trees." It is obvious that Frank Metzgar was a very rich man. This inventory of assets may, however, not have been complete. Stories passed down through the family and Mora Valley residents suggest that there was more. Persisting to this day are speculations that Metzgar had a great deal of money or gold (or both) hidden on his property, not all of which has yet been found. Some stories claim that on more than one occasion and in more than one location, gold was found by a community member and gave the finder instant wealth.

The court case dragged on for many years and was finally settled by the New Mexico Supreme Court long after the deaths of both Viviana and Henry Korte. The court's Solomonic decision pleased no one; undoubtedly, the only winners were the several attorneys involved.

In summary, Viviana Martin was a strong, self-reliant woman of the nineteenth century who led an exceptional life for her time. She married early and outside her cultural  tradition, which took courage. She was widowed at age nineteen and left with an infant son. Undaunted, she remarried and was widowed again at age twenty-nine, with three more dependent children.

Ever resilient, she married once again; this time to the richest man in the region and had three more children. Viviana was a loyal wife to each of her husbands, but following each loss, she carried on. She was hardworking and provided a good home to her seven children. Later, she relished  her numerous grandchildren and was a strong force in the lives of many of them. It seems beyond coincidence that each of Viviana's husbands was a strong independent man, who arrived in New Mexico from the eastern United States as a Santa Fe Trail trader. She lived out the last years of her life, contentedly, in a small house near the ranch home of her eldest daughter, Leonor (Ebel) Laumbach. She died on October 28, 1897, a little more than a month before her seventieth birthday. She is buried in the nearby Laumbach Cemetery.

Friday, April 24, 2015

Some Descendants of Captain Juan Damaso Salazar


First Generation

1. Juan Damaso (Damasio) Salazar  was born in New Mexico to Juan Cristobal Salazar and Margarita Samora. The date and the place of his birth are unknown to the author at this time.

Juan Damaso married Maria Guadalupe Trujillo (Ortiz) daughter of Andres Trujillo and Rosa Cordova on 17 April 1816 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. Maria was born on 8 December 1799 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. She was christened on 19 December 1799 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. NOTE: Maria Guadalupe is sometimes listed with the surname "Ortiz".

They had the following children, three which are listed as adopted and two of those are identified as Indian:

2 M i. Jose Felipe de Jesus Salazar  was christened on 19 December 1817 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Jose Felipe de Jesus married Maria Rita Romero  daughter of Jose Vicente Romero and Maria Isabel Gonzalez on 7 April 1836 in San Miguel del Vado, New Mexico. Maria was born in New Mexico.

3 M ii. Luis Salazar  was born in 1822 in New Mexico.

+ 4 M iii. Jose Guadalupe Salazar .

+ 5 F iv. Maria Antonia de Jesus Salazar  was born on 17 June 1827.

6 F v. Maria Dolores Salazar  was born in 1828 in New Mexico. She was christened on 24 December 1839 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. The child was "adopted" and is listed as an Indian 11 years old at the time of the baptism.

+ 7 F vi. Maria Refugio Salazar  was born on 4 July 1831.

8 F vii. Maria Rosalia Salazar  was born in 1831. She was christened on 20 June 1849 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. For birth and baptismal information refer to page 141 of the publication New Mexico Baptisms, San Miguel del Bado Church, Volume II, 12 May 1844 to 6 July 1853 published by the New Mexico Genealogical Society. Padrinos were her adopted "brother" Jose Aniceto Salazar and her adopted "sister" Maria Gregoria Salazar. Damacio Salazar is listed as PATRON. Maria Rosalia was listed as about 18 years old and as a Pallucha (Piute) Indian. 

+ 9 M viii. Jose Aniceto Salazar  was christened on 2 May 1832.

10 M ix. Jose de la Natividad Salazar  was christened on 24 December 1832 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. His parents are "unknown". He was most likely an Indian.

+ 11 F x. Maria Gregoria Salazar  was born on 25 November 1833.

+ 12 M xi. Jose Bernardo de Jesus Salazar  was born on 18 August 1838. He died on 30 January 1909.

13 M xii. Jose Preciliano Salazar  was christened on 10 November 1840 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

+ 14 M xiii. Cipio Salazar  was born in 1842.


Second Generation

4. Jose Guadalupe Salazar  (Juan Damaso) was born in New Mexico.


Jose Guadalupe married (1) Maria Francisca Baca . Maria was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

15 F i. Maria Francisca Salazar  was born on 11 January 1845 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. She was christened on 13 January 1845 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.


Jose Guadalupe married (2) Josefa Jaramillo  on 17 January 1848 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. Josefa was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

16 M ii. Jose Telesforo Salazar  was born on 4 April 1849 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He was christened on 5 April 1849 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

17 M iii. Jose de La Trinidad Salazar  was born on 15 June 1851 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He was christened on 27 June 1851 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

18 M iv. Dionisio Salazar  was born on 9 October 1855 in Sapello, New Mexico. He was christened on 14 October 1855 in Las Vegas, New Mexico.

19 F v. Maria Cesaria Salazar  was born on 25 February 1858 in Sapello, New Mexico. She was christened on 28 February 1858 in Las Vegas, New Mexico.

+ 20 M vi. Luciano Salazar  was born on 8 January 1860.

+ 21 M vii. Trinidad Salazar .

5. Maria Antonia de Jesus Salazar  (Juan Damaso) was born on 17 June 1827 in Puertecito, San Miguel County New Mexico. She was christened on 25 June 1827 in Pecos, San Miguel Mission, New Mexico.

Maria Antonia de Jesus married Pedro Gonzales  son of Salbador Gonzales and Juliana Gutierrez on 9 June 1841 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. Pedro was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

+ 22 F i. Maria Leonora Gonzales .

+ 23 F ii. Josefa de Jesus Gonzales  was born on 8 September 1844.

24 M iii. Jose de la Asencion Gonzales  was born on 10 August 1848 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He was christened on 16 August 1848 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

25 F iv. Maria de los Angles Gonzales  was born on 2 October 1850 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. She was christened on 6 October 1850 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

+ 26 M v. Jose Donaciano Gonzales  was born on 6 September 1852.

+ 27 F vi. Maria Placida Gonzales  was born on 3 February 1855.


+ 28 M vii. Damasio Gonzales  was christened on 16 December 1866.

+ 29 M viii. Jose Eustaquio Gonzales  was born in 1857.

7. Maria Refugio Salazar  (Juan Damaso) was born on 4 July 1831 in Puertecito, San Miguel County, New Mexico. She was christened on 28 August 1831 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Maria Refugio married (1) Jose Deciderio Salazar  on 12 September 1847 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. Jose was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

30 F i. Maria Sesaria Salazar  was born on 29 February 1848 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. She was christened on 5 March 1848 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

31 M ii. Jose Antonio Salazar  was born on 30 November 1850 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He was christened on 1 December 1850 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

+ 32 M iii. Andres Salazar .

33 F iv. Fernanda Salazar  was born on 30 May 1856 in Sapello, New Mexico. She was christened on 9 June 1856 in Las Vegas, New Mexico.


Maria Refugio married (2) Henriquez Falvez  on 29 March 1869 in Sapello, New Mexico. Henriquez was born in Massachuetts. The name is documented here as it was found in the marriage record.

9. Jose Aniceto Salazar  (Juan Damaso) was christened on 2 May 1832 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Jose Aniceto married Maria Ygnacia Montoya  daughter of Jose Pablo Montoya and Maria Lorenza Baca on 3 August 1856 in Las Vegas, New Mexico. Maria was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

34 F i. Maria Francisca Salazar  was born on 9 March 1858 in Sapello, New Mexico. She was christened on 14 March 1858 in Las Vegas, New Mexico.

Maria Francisca married Pablo Chavez  son of Felipe Chavez and Maria Gregoria Salazar in 1878 in Trinidad, Colorado. Pablo was born in New Mexico.

The marriage record if Maria Francisca and Pablo Chavez is a bit odd, could be that the marriage was initiated in Trinidad. For marriage information refer to page 121 of the publication New Mexico Marriages, Sapello, Our Lady of Guadulupe, January 31, 1860 to December 4, 1882 published by the Hispanic Genealogical Research Center of New Mexico. NOTE: No witnesses were noted and it was stated that they were 2nd cousins but in reality they were 1st cousins. Also noted elsewhere on this post.

35 M ii. Luciano Salazar  was born in 1859 in New Mexico.

36 F iii. Maria Lazara Salazar  was born on 17 December 1859 in Sapello, New Mexico. She was christened on 19 December 1859 in Las Vegas, New Mexico.

37 M iv. Jose Felipe Florian Salazar  was born on 1 May 1862 in Sapello, New Mexico. He was christened on 4 May 1862 in Sapello, New Mexico.

Jose Florian married Maria Nicolasa Chavez . Maria was born in New Mexico.

+ 38 F v. Rafaela Salazar  was born in 1865. She died on 4 June 1933.

39 M vi. Alejandro Salazar  was born on 9 March 1867 in Sapello, New Mexico. He

was christened on 18 March 1867 in Sapello, New Mexico.

40 M vii. Alejandro Salazar  was christened on 8 July 1868 in Sapello, New Mexico.

41 M viii. Ignacio Salazar  was christened on 24 August 1874 in Sapello, New Mexico.

42 M ix. Pula (Esquipula) Salazar  was born on 12 September 1878 in Sapello, New Mexico. He was christened on 13 September 1878 in Sapello, New Mexico.

11. Maria Gregoria Salazar  (Juan Damaso) was born on 25 November 1833 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. She was christened on 3 December 1833 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Maria Gegoria married Felipe Chavez  on 8 November 1851 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. Felipe was born in 1826 in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

43 M i. Jose Gavino Chavez  was born on 18 February 1855 in La Cuesta (Villanueva), New Mexico. He was christened on 22 February 1855 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

44 M ii. Pablo Chavez  was born in New Mexico.

Pablo married Maria Francisca Salazar  daughter of Jose Aniceto Salazar and Maria Ygnacia Montoya in 1878 in Trinidad, Colorado. Maria was born on 9 March 1858 in Sapello, New Mexico. She was christened on 14 March 1858 in Las Vegas, New Mexico.

The marriage record if Maria Francisca and Pablo Chavez is a bit odd, could be that the marriage was initiated in Trinidad. For marriage information refer to page 121 of the publication New Mexico Marriages, Sapello, Our Lady of Guadulupe, January 31, 1860 to December 4, 1882 published by the Hispanic Genealogical Research Center of New Mexico. NOTE: No witnesses were noted and it was stated that they were 2nd cousins but in reality they were 1st cousins. Also noted elsewhere on this post.

12. Jose Bernardo de Jesus Salazar  (Juan Damaso) was born on 18 August 1838 in Puertecito, San Miguel County New Mexico. He was christened on 21 August 1838 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He died on 30 January 1909 in Lincoln, Lincoln County, New Mexico.

Jose Bernardo de Jesus married (1) Rafaela Bonney  daughter of James (Santiago) Bonney and Maria Juana Mascarenas on 21 November 1858 in Las Vegas, New Mexico. Rafaela was born in 1845 in New Mexico. She died on 7 September 1885 in Tiptonville, New Mexico.

They had the following children:

45 M i. Luis Salazar was born of unknown parents on 21 April 1863 in Sapello, New Mexico. He was christened and adopted by the adoptive parents, Jose Bernardo de Jesus Salazar and Rafaela Salazar on 29 April 1863 in Sapello, New Mexico.

46 M ii. Emilio Teofilo Salazar  was born on 30 May 1863 in Sapello, New Mexico. He was christened on 4 June 1863 in Sapello, New Mexico.

47 F iii. Emilia Teofila Salazar  was born on 29 January 1866 in Sapello, New Mexico. She was christened on 10 February 1866 in Sapello, New Mexico.

48 M iv. Jose Francisco Salazar  was christened on 2 March 1868 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. He died on 5 September 1935 in Lincoln, New Mexico.

Jose Francisco married Sara Boca .

+ 49 F v. Emilia Salazar  was born on 18 September 1870.


Jose Bernardo de Jesus married (2) Alice Frampton  on 10 April 1888 in Wagon Mound, New Mexico. Alice was born in New Mexico.

Marriage information can be found on page 52 of the publication New Mexico Marriages, La Junta (Watrous), September 1873 to April 1908 published by the Hispanic Genealogical Research Center of New Mexico.  Here he is listed as the widower of Maria Rafaela Bone. Quite a marriage problem as indicated in the church records. It seems that the woman, Alice Frampton was not a Catholic and they has one illegitimate child prior to getting married.

They had the following children:

50 M vi. Alberto Bernardo Salazar  (the illegitimate child indicated above) was born on 14 October 1887 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. He was christened on 13 November 1887 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

51 F vii. Delfina Salazar  was born on 1 January 1889 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. She was christened on 25 February 1889 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

52 F viii. Adelina Salazar  was born on 2 August 1890 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. She was christened on 31 August1890 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

53 M ix. Rogero Salazar  was born on 21 October 1891 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. He was christened on 6 December 1891 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

54 F x. Laura Salazar  was born on 15 August 1896 in Tiptonville, New Mexico. She was christened on 15 September 1896 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

55 M xi. Blas Damasio Salazar  was born on 3 February 1898 in Tiptonville, New Mexico. He was christened on 5 March 1898 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

56 F xii. Aurelia Salazar  was born on 28 May 1900 in Tiptonville, New Mexico. She was christened on 17 June 1900 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

57 F xiii. Carolina Salazar  was born on 31 May 1901 in Tiptonville, New Mexico. She was christened on 13 June 1901 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

14. Cipio Salazar  (Juan Damaso) was born in 1842 in New Mexico.

Cipio married (1) Dolores Salazar  on 3 February 1860 in Sapello, New Mexico. Dolores was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

58 M i. Jose Salazar  was born on 16 November 1861 in Manuelitas, New Mexico. He was christened on 19 November 1861 in Sapello, New Mexico.

59 M ii. Manuel Salazar  was born on 7 November 1862 in Sapello, New Mexico. He was christened on 7 December 1862 in Sapello, New Mexico.


Cipio was not married (2) to Martina Romero . Martina was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

60 F iii. Maria Rebecca Elvira Salazar  was born in June 1874 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. She was christened on 14 July 1874 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

61 M iv. David Salazar  was born on 26 August 1876 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. He was christened on 1 October 1876 in La Junta (Watrous), New

Mexico.


Third Generation

20. Luciano Salazar  (Jose Guadalupe, Juan Damaso) was born on 8 January 1860 in Sapello, New Mexico. He was christened on 12 January 1860 in Sapello, New Mexico.

Luciano married Juliana Rivas  on 14 April 1884 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

They had the following children:

62 F i. Rita Salazar  was born on 22 May 1886 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. She was christened on 30 May 1886 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

63 M ii. Aniceto Roberto Salazar  was born on 20 May 1887 in Tiptonville, New Mexico. He was christened on 8 June 1887 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

64 M iii. Donaciano Alberto Salazar  was born on 2 November 1889 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. He was christened on 8 December 1889 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

Donaciano Alberto married Ramona Garcia  on 23 September 1909 in Sapello, New Mexico. Ramona was born in New Mexico.

65 M iv. Nicolas Salazar  was born on 8 September 1892 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. He was christened on 25 September 1892 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

66 M v. Demetrio Fabian Salazar  was born on 22 December 1894 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

21. Trinidad Salazar  (Jose Guadalupe, Juan Damaso) was born in New Mexico.

Trinidad married Librada Valdez  on 24 January 1881 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. Librada was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

67 F i. Placida Salazar  was born on 29 November 1882 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. She was christened on 26 November 1882 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

68 F ii. Trinidad Anastacia Salazar  was born on 15 April 1884 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. She was christened on 4 May 1844 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

69 M iii. Bernardo Salazar  was born on 5 June 1885 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. He was christened on 19 July 1885 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

70 F iv. Guadalupe Salazar  was born on 8 March 1887 in Tiptonville, New Mexico.

She was christened on 15 March 1887 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

71 F v. Maria Margarita Salazar  was born on 21 May 1890 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. She was christened on 8 June 1890 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

72 M vi. Teodoro Salazar  was born on 29 February 1892 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. He was christened on 13 March 1892 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

73 F vii. Maria Josefa Irinea Salazar  was born on 15 April 1897 in Armenta, Mora County, New Mexico. She was christened on 23 April 1897 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

74 F viii. Refugio Salazar  was born on 8 October 1901 in Armenta, Mora County, New Mexico. She was christened on 26 January 1902 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

22. Maria Leonora Gonzales  (Maria Antonia de Jesus Salazar, Juan Damaso) was born in New Mexico.

Maria married Juan Esteban Sena  on 14 May 1860 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. Juan was born in 1840 in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

75 F i. Maria Marta Sena  was born on 1 January 1863 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. She was christened on 17 January 1863 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

76 M ii. Celso Sena  was born in 1866 in New Mexico.

77 F iii. Lazara Sena  was born in 1869 in New Mexico.

23. Josefa de Jesus Gonzales  (Maria Antonia de Jesus Salazar, Juan Damaso) was born on 8 September 1844 in Colonias, San Miguel, New Mexico. She was christened on 30 September 1844 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Josefa de Jesus married Jose Bruno Martín  son of Josef de los Reyes Martín and Nestora Gallegos on 19 October 1879 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Jose was born on 6 October 1852 in Bernal, New Mexico. He was christened on 12 October 1852 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He was buried on 3 January 1920 in Montoya, Quay County, New Mexico.

They had the following children:

78 F i. Maria Floripa Martínez  was christened on 26 March 1883 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

79 F ii. Benerita Martínez  was christened on 12 February 1885 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

80 F iii. Cenaida Martínez  was born on 8 August 1887 in Angostura, New Mexico. She was christened on 26 August 1887 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.


81 M iv. Tomas Martínez  was born on 20 December 1889 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. He was christened on 9 January 1890 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

82 M v. Raymundo Martínez  was christened on 18 October 1881 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

Raymundo married Cypriana Garcia  on 16 June 1917 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Cypriana was born in New Mexico.

83 M vi. Pedro Martínez  was born in March 1896 in New Mexico.

84 F vii. Antonia Martínez  was born in April 1897 in New Mexico.

85 M viii. Desiderio Martínez  was born in August 1899 in New Mexico.

86 F ix. Maria Martínez  was born in 1902 in New Mexico.

87 F x. Lucia Martínez  was born in 1905 in New Mexico.

26. Jose Donaciano Gonzales  (Maria Antonia de Jesus Salazar, Juan Damaso) was born on 6 September 1852 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He was christened on 19 September 1852 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Jose Donaciano married Gregoria Mares  on 26 May 1879 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Gregoria was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

88 F i. Emilia Gonzales  was born on 18 April 1880 in Colonias, New Mexico. She was christened on 24 May 1880 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

89 M ii. Jose Pedro Gonzales  was christened on 4 August 1881 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

90 F iii. Placida Gonzales  was christened on 31 January 1884 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

91 F iv. Rosenda Gonzales  was born on 1 March 1887 in Las Colonias, New Mexico. She was christened on 14 March 1887 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

Rosenda married Simon Urban  on 21 November 1904 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

92 F v. Placida Gonzales  was born on 23 April 1889 in Colonias, New Mexico. She was christened on 31 May 1889 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

93 F vi. Maria Gonzales  was born on 3 May 1892 in Colonias, New Mexico. She was christened on 26 May 1892 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

94 F vii. Adelaida Gonzales  was born on 21 February 1894 in Colonias, New Mexico. She was christened on 25 February 1894 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

95 M viii. Felipe de Jusus Gonzales  was born on 19 April 1895 in Colonias, New Mexico. He was christened on 24 April 1895 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

27. Maria Placida Gonzales  (Maria Antonia de Jesus Salazar, Juan Damaso) was born on 3 February 1855 in El Pueblo, San Miguel County New Mexico. She was christened on 11 February 1855 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Maria Placida married Luis Jose Sanchez  on 18 November 1867 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Luis was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

96 M i. Jose Sipio Sanchez  was christened on 21 June 1870 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

97 M ii. Juan Apolinario Sanchez  was christened on 29 July 1878 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

98 M iii. Pedro Luis Sanchez  was born on 2 August 1881 in Colonias, New Mexico. He was christened on 1 September 1881 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

Pedro Luis married Maria Aragon  on 6 July 1903 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Maria was christened on 8 February 1879 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

99 F iv. Maria Sara Sanchez  was christened on 2 October 1883 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

28. Damasio Gonzales  (Maria Antonia de Jesus Salazar, Juan Damaso) was christened on 16 December 1866 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

Damasio married Maria Atocha Baca  on 4 November 1889 in Anton Chico, New Mexico. Maria was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

100 F i. Guadalupe Gonzales  was born on 15 March 1894 in Colonias, New Mexico. She was christened on 19 March 1894 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

101 M ii. Cesario Gonzales  was born on 6 August 1895 in Colonias, New Mexico. He was christened on 5 September 1895 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

29. Jose Eustaquio Gonzales  (Maria Antonia de Jesus Salazar, Juan Damaso) was born in 1857 in New Mexico.

Jose Eustaquio married Maria Ines Lucero  daughter of Pedro Antonio Lucero and Manuela Sandoval on 11 October 1878 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. Maria was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

102 F i. Nestora Gonzales  was christened on 12 March 1880 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

103 F ii. Maria Clara Gonzales  was christened on 27 January 1882 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

104 M iii. Fermin Gonzales  was born on 19 April 1891 in Las Colonias, New Mexico. He was christened on 20 April 1891 in Anton Chico, New Mexico.

32. Andres Salazar  (Maria Refugio Salazar, Juan Damaso) was born in New Mexico.

Andres Salazar married Filomena Montoya  on 9 December 1874 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. Filomena was born in New Mexico.

They had the following children:

105 F i. Cenovia Salazar .

Cenovia married Teodoro Martínez  son of Donaciano Martín(ez) and Maria Nicolasa Martines on 28 June 1906 in La Junta, New Mexico. Teodoro was born on 15 July 1883 in La Junta, New Mexico. He was christened on 7 August 1883 in Watrous, New Mexico.

106 F ii. Maria de la Natividad Salazar  was born on 8 September 1876 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. She was christened on 10 September 1876 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

38. Rafaela Salazar  (Jose Aniceto, Juan Damaso) was born in 1865 in New Mexico. She died on 4 June 1933 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Rafaela married Tomas F. Apodaca  on 14 October 1888 in Sapello, New Mexico. Tomas was born in 1873 in New Mexico. He died on 29 March 1943 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

They had the following children:

107 M i. Alrjandro Apodaca  was born in 1917 in New Mexico.

108 M ii. Sostenes Apodaca  was born in 1900 in New Mexico.

109 F iii. Amelia Apodaca  was born in 1903 in New Mexico.

110 M iv. Jose B Apodaca  was born in 1905 in New Mexico.

49. Emilia Salazar  (Jose Bernardo de Jesus, Juan Damaso) was born on 18 September 1870 in Sapello, New Mexico. She was christened on 3 October 1870 in Sapello, New Mexico.

Emilia married Harry Francisco Mumford  son of Harry Mumford and Josefa Marquez on 12 February 1890 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. Harry was born on 4 June 1866 in Ft. Union, New Mexico. He was christened on 9 June 1866 in Sapello, New Mexico.

They had the following children:

111 M i. Jose Escolastico Federico Mumford  was born on 10 February 1891 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico. He was christened on 8 March 1891 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

112 F ii. Maria Ann Mumford  was born on 5 June 1892 in Tiptonville, New Mexico. She was christened on 3 September 1892 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

113 F iii. Teofila Emilia Sara Mumford  was born on 4 February 1898 in Tiptonville, New Mexico. She was christened on 6 February 1898 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

114 M iv. Francisco Eduardo Mumford  was born on 13 October 1901 in Tiptonville, New Mexico. He was christened on 17 December 1901 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.

115 F v. Maria Ana Mumford  was born on 29 July 1905 in Tiptonville, New Mexico. She was christened on 6 September 1905 in La Junta (Watrous), New Mexico.