Saturday, December 27, 2014

Assimalition by New Mexicans - 1598 - 2000+, Extrapolate Backwards

Extrapolate = To infer or estimate by extending or projecting known information.

Lets do that for a moment with the New Mexican population over the years since our ancestors arrived here from Nueva Espana (Mexico).

The folks who came north to New Mexico with don Juan de Onate were some Spanish, many born in Mexico, some Indians from the valley of Mexico and some mestizos. Juan de Oñate married Isabel de Tolosa Cortés de Moctezuma, granddaughter of Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of the Triple Alliance, and great granddaughter of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma Xocoyotzin, so we know that even the leader of the future New Mexicans had mestizo offspring with him.... his son Cristobal Onate.

From 1598 to about 1750 before most Frenchmen started arriving, the only mixing of the races was between the New Mexicans and New Mexican Indians as well as the Indians they had bought with them from the valley of Mexico. This mixing started almost immediately and involved mostly the pueblos in and around San Juan de los Caballeros and later Santa Fe. As time progresses the Indians involved in the mixing with the "Spaniards" grew to include all of the Pueblo Indians and also the Navajos, Apaches and Utes.

Mid to late 1700's - 1825 or so - A few Frenchmen, very few, started to arrive and you see a few names with French origins creep into the mix. There are several and the number here is no where near complete . Alari (Alarid), Beaubien, Laroux, Acheveque, Gurule, to name but a few.

1825 - 1846 - The Americans of whatever stripe start arriving and mixing with the New Mexicans and whatever mixture they represented by this time. They started mixing almost immediately as they figured out that New Mexican women represented the best way to integrate and get access to the wealth of New Mexico. This "wealth" included the licenses that were available only to citizens of the Mexican Republic. Some of these more famous Americans who became Mexican citizens include names as famous as Kit Carson and the future governor of New Mexico, who was later assassinated, Charles Bent. Both of these men married sisters, Kit married Maria Josefa Jaramillo and Bent married her sister Maria Ignacia Jaramillo. Both being the daughters of Francisco Estevan Jaramillo and Maria Apolonia Vigil.

1846 - 1900 - The early American "pioneers" and soldiers came in by the thousands. Literally a flood of the strangers. The era of soldiers, merchants, government workers and the folks brought in by the coming of the railroad. Intermarrying intensified, especially around the forts the Americans built all around the state and next to towns springing up along the railroad. If you don't think this was significant just look at what happened to the population around Santa Fe, Las Vegas and the communities around Fort Union.

1900 - 1950 - The Americans came in droves and soon had displaced the new Mexicans and Indians as the dominant racial group in the area. Incidents if intermarrying increased dramatically during this period. Especially around the towns of Santa Fe, Taos and Albuquerque.

1950 and afterwards - After World War II the intermarrying accelerated to the point to where it is today. Intermarriage of New Mexicans and their descendants to the point that it is no longer uncommon. Whereas before the intermarrying was mostly "Americans" and Hispanic New Mexican women, now the trend included Hispanic New Mexican men marrying outside of the group.

And so it goes.

Sunday, December 14, 2014

Ernesto Arcenio Perea, Sus Antepasados

Ahnentafel Chart for Ernesto Arcenio Perea. Ernesto was very close family from Ilfield, New Mexico. Last time I saw "Ernie" I was 12 years old or so. Got an opportunity to visit with him at length last year and was saddened to hear he passed away in San Antonio, Texas. Rest in Peace Ernesto. His family has been involved in all aspects of New Mexican history over the last 400 years plus.

First Generation

1. Ernesto Arcenio Perea  was born on 5 Dec 1938 in New Mexico. He died on 20 Nov 2014 in San Antonio, Texas.

Second Generation

2. Patrocino Perea  was born in 1913. He died on 20 Sep 1953 in El Gusano, New Mexico. He married Floripa Benavidez on 19 Apr 1934 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

3. Floripa Benavidez  was born on 12 May 1905 in El Gusano, New Mexico. She was christened on 21 May 1905 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. She died in 1943.

Third Generation

4. Jose Modesto Perea  was born on 9 Oct 1874 in Wagon Mound, New Mexico. He was christened on 15 Oct 1874 in Wagon Mound, New Mexico. He married Maria Tranquilina Ortiz on 26 May 1897 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

5. Maria Tranquilina Ortiz  was born on 6 Jul 1882 in El Gusano, New Mexico. She was christened on 9 Jul 1882 in San Miguel del Vado, New Mexico. She died on 26 Apr 1956 in San Isidro South, New Mexico. She was buried on 29 Apr 1956 in San Isidro South, New Mexico.

6. Jose Basilio Benavidez  was born on 2 Mar 1875 in El Gusano, New Mexico. He was christened on 13 Mar 1875 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He died on 4 Sep 1953 in El Gusano, New Mexico. He married Maria Cleofas Quintana on 23 Apr 1900 in San Miguel Del Vado, New Mexico.

7. Maria Cleofas Quintana  was born on 10 Apr 1881 in Cerrito, New Mexico. She died on 17 Dec 1961 in Ilfield, New Mexico. She was buried on 20 Dec 1961 in El Gusano, New Mexico.

Fourth Generation

8. Patrocinio Perea  was born in New Mexico. He married Efigenia Sena Were Not Married.

9. Efigenia Sena  was born in New Mexico.

10. Jose Trinidad Ortiz  was born in New Mexico. He married Maria Catalina Garcia on 17
Aug 1874 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

11. Maria Catalina Garcia  was born on 25 Nov 1857 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. She was christened on 27 Nov 1857 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

12. Jose Ponsiano Benavidez  was born on 24 Nov 1845 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He was christened on 3 Dec 1845 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico. He died on 21 Feb 1930 in San Miguel County, New Mexico. He married Maria Doniciana Ortiz on 13 Jan 1868 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

13. Maria Doniciana Ortiz  was born on 26 Sep 1851. She was christened on 28 Sep 1851 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

14. Pedro Quintana  was born in Oct 1832 in New Mexico. He died in 1910. He married Maria Librada Saiz on 7 Jan 1859 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

15. Maria Librada Saiz  was born in Dec 1844 in New Mexico.

Fifth Generation

20. Juan Ortiz  was born in 1820 in New Mexico. He married Maria Simona Cordova on 28 Jan 1844 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

21. Maria Simona Cordova  was born on 28 Oct 1826 in Pecos, New Mexico. She was christened on 1 Nov 1826 in Pecos, New Mexico.

22. Jose Marcos Garcia  was born in 1823 in New Mexico. He married Maria Tomasa Segura on 25 Jan 1843 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

23. Maria Tomasa Segura  was born in 1823 in New Mexico.

24. Juan Cristoval Benavidez  was born in 1803 in New Mexico. He married Maria Dolores Barela on 20 Jan 1833 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

25. Maria Dolores Barela  was born in 1815 in New Mexico.

26.  Juan Ortiz  is printed as #20 on page 2.

27.  Maria Simona Cordova  is printed as #21 on page 2.

28. Fernando Quintana  was born in New Mexico.

30. Jose Manuel Esquipula Saiz  was born on 23 May 1818 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He was christened on 26 May 1818. He married Maria Clementa Estrada on 16 Dec 1837 in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

31. Maria Clementa Estrada  was born in New Mexico.

Sixth Generation

40. Juan Antonio Andres Ortiz  was born in 1790 in New Mexico. He married Maria Manuela Gallego(Griego) on 22 Mar 1813 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

41. Maria Manuela Gallego(Griego)  was born in 1790 in New Mexico.

42. Juan Cordova  was born in 1810 in New Mexico. He married Polonia Perea.

43. Polonia Perea  was born in 1810 in New Mexico.

44. Jose Julian Garcia de Alviar  was born in 1797 in New Mexico. He married Maria Juana Getrudis Gonzales on 20 Dec 1819 in Tesuque, New Mexico.

45. Maria Juana Getrudis Gonzales  was born in 1793 in New Mexico.

46. Blas Segura  was born in New Mexico. He married Maria Diega Silba.

47. Maria Diega Silba  was born in New Mexico.

48. Juan Domingo Benavidez  was born on 30 Jan 1746 in San Juan de los Cabellaros. He died in 1840 in New Mexico. He married Maria Guadulupe Garcia.

49. Maria Guadulupe Garcia  was born in 1766. She died in 1829 in After in New Mexico.

50. Juan de Jesus Barela  was born in 1790 in New Mexico. He died before 1855 in New Mexico. He married Maria Antonia Chabes.

51. Maria Antonia Chabes  was born in 1790 in New Mexico. She died before 1855 in New Mexico.

60. Antonio Jose Saiz  was born in New Mexico. He married Maria Guadalupe Prada on 9 Mar 1805 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

61. Maria Guadalupe Prada  was born in New Mexico.

62. Simon Estrada  was born in New Mexico. He married Maria Maese.

63. Maria Maese  was born in New Mexico.

Seventh Generation

88. Gregorio Nicolas Garcia de Alviar  was born in 1740 in New Mexico. He was buried on 29 Apr 1812 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He married Maria Loreto Padilla.

89. Maria Loreto Padilla  was born on 25 Feb 1763 in New Mexico. She was christened on 25 Feb 1763 in Santa Fe Military Chapel, New Mexico.

90. Blas Gonzales  was born in New Mexico. He married Maria Lucia (Luisa) Archeveque on 8 May 1783 in Pojaque, New Mexico.

91. Maria Lucia (Luisa) Archeveque  was born in New Mexico. She was buried on 5 Mar 1831 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

96. Juan Domingo Benavidez  was born in 1730 in New Mexico. He died in 1770 in Santa Fe,
New Mexico. He married Francisca Lujan.

97. Francisca Lujan  was born in 1730 in New Mexico. She was buried on 5 Aug 1818 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

98. Josef Garcia  was born in 1730 in New Mexico. He married Maria Duran.

99. Maria Duran  was born in 1730 in New Mexico.

100. Jose Mariano B(V)arela  was born in 1760 in New Mexico. He married Maria Jaramillo.

101. Maria Jaramillo  was born in 1760 in New Mexico.

102. Jose Antonio Chabes  was born in 1760 in New Mexico. He married Victoria Jaramillo.

103. Victoria Jaramillo  was born in 1760 in New Mexico.

120. Andres Saiz  was born in New Mexico. He married Maria Gonzales.

121. Maria Gonzales  was born in New Mexico.

122. Jose Bernardo Prada  was born in New Mexico. He married Maria de Loreto Sandoval on 19 Oct 1787 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

123. Maria de Loreto Sandoval  was born in New Mexico.

Eighth Generation

178. Manuel Padilla  was born in 1732 in New Mexico. He was buried on 8 Jun 1809 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He married Maria Gertrudes Sena on 24 Jun 1760 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

179. Maria Gertrudes Sena  was born in 1736 in New Mexico. She was buried on 8 Mar 1810 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

180. Francisco Gonzales  was born in 1740 in New Mexico. He married Francisca Ynojos.

181. Francisca Ynojos  was born in 1740 in New Mexico. She was buried on 17 Jun 1772 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

192. Nicolas Benavidez  was born on 26 Jan 1683 in Durango, Mexico. He died before 1720. He married Juana Ojeda on 4 Mar 1702 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

193. Juana Ojeda  was born about 1687.

Ninth Generation

356. Francisco Padilla  was born in 1700. He was buried on 22 Feb 1775 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He married Francisca Guillen on 18 Nov 1731 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

357. Francisca Guillen  was born in 1715. She died on 28 Apr 1785 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

358. Tomas Antonio Sena  was born in 1700. He died on 11 Feb 1781 in Santa Fe Military
Chapel, New Mexico. He married Maria Luisa Garcia de Noriega in May 1723 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

359. Maria Luisa Garcia de Noriega  was born on 12 Aug 1708 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She died on 3 Jul 1767 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

384. Juan Esteban Benavidez  was born in 1650. He was buried on 10 Nov 1689 in Durango, Mexico. He married Maria Esparza Diezma on 20 Jan 1681 in Durango, Nueva Viscaya.

385. Maria Esparza Diezma  was born in 1657 in Nombre de Dios, Mexico. She died in 1702 in New Mexico.

386. Antonio Ojeda  was born in 1650 in New Mexico. He died in 1702. He married Bernardina Bernal.

387. Bernardina Bernal  was born in 1650 in New Mexico. She died in 1702.

Tenth Generation

714. Pedro Guillen  was born in 1681. He died in 1732. He married Maria Ramos.

715. Maria Ramos  was born in 1683. She died on 20 Feb 1730 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

716. Bernardino Sena y Valle  was born in 1684 in El Valle de Mexico. He died on 11 Nov 1765 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He married Tomasa Martín Gonzalez on 8 Feb 1705 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

717. Tomasa Martín Gonzalez  was born in 1685. She died in Feb 1727 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

718. Tomas Garcia de Noriega  was born in 1685. He married Juana Hurtado de Mendoza on 7 Jan 1705 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

719. Juana Hurtado de Mendoza  was born in 1677. She died in 1750 in After.

Eleventh Generation

1428. Tomas de la Mora  was born in 1661. He died in 1709. He married Geronima Guillen in 1680.

1429. Geronima Guillen  was born in 1655. She died in 1709.

1430. Nicolas Ramos  was born in 1655 in Spain. He died in 1695. He married Ana Manriquez de Reinoso.

1431. Ana Manriquez de Reinoso  was born in 1659 in Fresnillo, Nueva Espana. She died on 24 May 1727 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

1432. Agustine Sena  was born in 1650 in Cuidad de Mexico, Nueva Espana. He married Maria Ynez Amparano.

1433. Maria Ynez Amparano  was born in 1650 in Ciudad de Mexico, Nueva Espana.

1434. Hernan (el Mozo) Martín Serrano  was born in 1606 in San Gabriel del Yunque. He married Josefa de la Assencion Gonsalez.

1435. Josefa de la Assencion Gonsalez .

1436. Alonso Garcia de Noriega  was born in 1649. He died in 1696 in Sevilleta, New Mexico. He married Ana Jorge de Vera in 1675.

1437. Ana Jorge de Vera  was born in 1660. She died in 1692.

1438. Diego Hurtado de Mendoza  was born in 1658. He died in 1692. He married Josefa de la Fuente in 1676.

1439. Josefa de la Fuente  was born in 1662. She died in 1694.

Twelfth Generation

2868. Hernan (2nd) Martín Serrano  was born in 1558 in Zacatecas, Nueva Espana. He died in 1628. He married dona Ines.

2869. dona Ines  was born in 1560 in New Mexico. She died in New Mexico. Note: Dona Ines was a Tano Indian woman from New Mexico, a very interesting historical figure.

2871. Sebestiana de Mondragon  died on 25 Nov 1728 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

2872. Alonso Garcia  was born in 1627 in Zacatecas, Nueva Espana. He died in 1700. He married Teresa Varela.

2873. Teresa Varela  was born in 1636. She died in 1693.

2874. Antonio Jorge de Vera  was born in 1633. He died in 1680. He married Gertrudes Baca.

2875. Gertrudes Baca  was born in 1630. She died in 1680 in Before.

2876. Andres Hurtado  was born in 1628 in Zacatecas, Nueva Espana. He died in 1679 in Santa Fe, Nuevo Mexico. He married Bernardina Salas y Trujillo.

2877. Bernardina Salas y Trujillo  was born in 1635 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. She died on 2 Feb 1729 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

2878. Juan Fernandez de la Fuente  was born in 1632.

Thirteenth Generation

5736. Hernan (1st) Martín Serrano  was born in 1529 in Huexaotzinco, Nueva Espana. He died Durango, Nueva Espana.

5742. Juan Alonso de Mondragon .Juan married Juana Sanchez de Monroy.

5743. Juana Sanchez de Monroy .

5744. Andres Garcia  was born in 1600. He married Ana Francisca.
5745. Ana Francisca  was born in 1600.

5746. Pedro Varela de Losada  was born in 1608. He married Ana Ortiz (Holguin).

5747. Ana Ortiz (Holguin)  was born in 1591.

5748. Manuel Jorge  was born in 1592. He died in Sep 1655. He was buried on 18 Sep 1655 in Parral, New Spain. He married Ana de Vera in 1630.

5749. Ana de Vera  was born in 1610.

5750. Antonio Baca  was born in 1589 in Cuidad de Mexico, Nueva Espana. He died on 21 Jul 1643 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He married Yumar Perez de Bustillo in 1608. Note: Antonio Baca, he was beheaded on the Plaza in Santa Fe as part of the assination of Governor Rosas. He was tried, convicted and executed along with several others.

5751. Yumar Perez de Bustillo  was born in 1591 in Nueva Espana. She died in 1643. Note: This lady has an interesting history in New Mexico.

5754. Diego de Trujillo  was born in 1613 in Ciudad de Mexico, Nueva Espana. He died in 1682 in Casas Grandes, Nueva Espana. He married Catilina Vasquez.

5755. Catilina Vasquez  was born in 1621.

Fourteenth Generation

11472. Hernan Martín  was born in 1500 in Jerez de la Frontera, Espana. Note: Hernan was a blacksmith, served with Hernan Cortes Conquistador 1519, Nueva España. He was there during the conquest of Mexico. He left España in 1509 from Jerez de la Frontera. One of the 3 first blacksmiths to set foot in the new world.

11486. Pedro Sanchez de Monroy .

11492. Pedro Varela  was born in 1574 in Santiago de Compostela, Espana.

11494. Juan Lopez Olguin Villasana  was born in Feb 1559 in Fuente Ovejuna, Extremadura, Espana. He was christened on 9 Feb 1559. He married Catalina Villanueva in 1574.

11495. Catalina Villanueva  was born in 1560 in Tepeacu, Nueva Espana.

11496. Antonio Jorge  was born in 1560 in Tangier, North Africa. He married Maria Alvarez.

11497. Maria Alvarez  was born in 1560.

11498. Gaspar de Vera  was born in 1561 in Nueva Viscaya, Nueva Espana. He married Maria Delgado.

11499. Maria Delgado  was born in 1561.

11500. Cristobal Vaca  was born in 1567 in Cuidad de Mejico, Nueva Espana. He died in 1613. He married Ana Ortiz in 1582 in Ciduad de Mejico.

11501. Ana Ortiz  was born in 1563 in Cuidad de Mejico, Nueva Espana. She died in 1620 in Santa Cruz de la Canada, Nuevo Mejico.

11502. Juan Perez de Bustillo  was born on 6 Dec 1548. He died in 1626. He married Maria de la Cruz.

11503. Maria de la Cruz  was born in 1560. She died in 1626.

11510. Diego Marquez  was born in 1602. He died on 21 Jul 1643 in Santa Fe, Reyno de Nuevo Mexico. He married Bernardina Vasquez.

11511. Bernardina Vasquez  was born in 1606 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. She died in 1660.

Fifteenth Generation

22972. Hernan Martín de Monroy .

22984. Pedro Varela  was born in 1550 in Espana.

22988. Juan Lopez Villasana  was born in 1530 in Somewhere in Spain. He married Isabel Ruiz on 9 Feb 1551 in Fuente Ovejuna, Extremadura, Esapna.

22989. Isabel Ruiz  was born in 1530 in Somewhere in Spain.

22990. don Jose(ph)  was born in 1530 in Somewhere in Nueva Espana (Mexico).

23000. Juan de Vaca  was born in 1547.

23002. Francisco Pacheco  was born in 1543.

23004. Simon Perez  was born in 1523. He married Juana de Zamora.

23005. Juana de Zamora .

23020. Geronimo Marquez  was born in 1560. He married Unknown in 1587.

23021. Unknown .

23022. Francisco Vasquez  was born in 1570 in Cartaya, Espana.

Sixteenth Generation

46000. Luis de Vaca  was born in 1527.

46040. Hernan Munoz Sambrano  was born in 1530 in San Lucar de Barraneda, Espana.

46044. Alonso Alfran  was born in 1535 in Spain.

Saturday, December 13, 2014

The Expedition of Lt. Governor don Pedro de Villasur, 14 August 1720

A lot of our New Mexican ancestors died here in 1720, a long way away from home. A good article in todays Santa Fe New Mexican by Marc Simmons can be found here as well as on Wikipedia.

It was a tragic day in New Mexico.

Our ancestors fought many battles in defense of our New Mexican homeland, always outnumbered and sometimes at great distances from home. We, all of us, would not be here, would not be who we are were it not for these men.

Read the articles at the web addresses indicated above and when you think of people defending the homeland think of the troops guided by Lt. Governor don Pedro de Villasur.

Saturday, October 11, 2014

Maria Damiana Tapia, Both of them!

This post is about two different women, both named Maria Damiana Tapia. The first was the paternal aunt of the second. It is an odd story and somewhat complicated with many unanswered questions for both of them. In fact there are more questions than anything that is known about either of them.

The first Maria Damiana Tapia I am talking about was born in the early 1800's most likely in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico where all of her siblings were born to Diego Antonio Tapia and Maria Apolonia Gallegos. She was one of at least seven children of Diego Antonio and Maria Apolonia. One of the other children of the couple was Jose Nicolas Tapia. More on him a bit later.

The first Maria Damiana Tapia married at least 3 times,

1) First she married Jose Santiago Armijo on the 2nd of July of 1828 - Jose Santiago Armijo was dead by 1839.

On March 17 1833 Damiana Tapia and her husband Santiago Armijo baptized (and adopted) Maria Tereas Armijo at San Miguel del Bado. Maria Teresa is listed as being from unknown parents.

On May 3, 1838 Damiana Tapia and her husband Santiago Armijo baptized (and adopted) Jose Dolores Armijo at Santa Fe. Jose Dolores is listed as one month old and as being from unknown parents.

2) Next she married Antonio Salazar  - Her second husband and the father of Jose Felipe de Salazar born the 18th of February of 1840 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

On May 21, 1839 Damiana and her husband  Antonio baptized and adopted Maria del Rosario Salazar, the daughter of "Indios".  Maria del Rosario was approximately five years old when she was baptized in Santa Fe.

On the 6th of December 1839 Damiana, by this time 7 months pregnant,  and her husband Antonio Salazar baptized (and adopted) another child. This time a three day old girl named Maria Antonia Salazar and listed as being from unknown parents and also baptized in Santa Fe.

On February 18, 1840 Damiana gave birth to their son mentioned above, Jose Felipe Salazar. Jose Felipe was baptized in Santa Fe by a woman named Josefa Peres Serrano.

On August 5th 1840 Damiana and Antonio baptized (and adopted) another child. This one named Jose de Jesus Salazar who was born 3 days previous to unknown parents at Placer de Dolores, New Mexico.

3) Next Damiana Tapia wed Juan Jose Vigil on the 7th of January of 1854 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

NOTE: Between May of 1839 when they baptized the Indian Maria del Rosario and August 5, 1840, In just fifteen months or so they went from no children to a five year old and three infants. Maybe even an additional two adopted children from her first marriage.

Next we look at the second  Maria Damiana Tapia, the niece of the first Damiana and the daughter of Jose Nicolas Tapia and Maria Lauriana Ulibarri. This Maria Damiana was born in San Miguel del Bado and baptized there on September 29, 1833 by  her maternal uncle Antonio Ulivarri and Maria Josefa Martín.

Damiana Tapia number 2 seems to have never married. She is listed as the mother of three different individuals and two others were placed in her care:

1) Vitor Tapia, when Vitor married in November of 1873 he was listed as the "natural" son of Damiana Tapia. No father was listed nor identified.

2) Maria Benigna Tapia was baptized on the 17th of February of 1855 in San Miguel del Bado by Ysidro Martín and Anastacia Montano. She is listed as the daughter of unknown parents and placed with Damiana.

3) Maria Cesaria Tapia Born on August 27, 1856 in San Miguel del Bado and who was raised by her grandparents Jose Nico;as Tapia and Maria Lauriana Ulibarri. No father is listed on the birth and baptismal record.

4) Jose Francisco Tapia was baptized on April 3, 1859 having been born the day previous. His padrinos are listed as Jose Eusebio Lucero and Josefa Encinias. Jose Francisco's parents are also listed as unknown and he was also placed in the household of Damiana.

5) Maria Vidal Tapia born on April 25, 1867 in San Miguel del Bado. Only her mother is noted on the birth and baptismal record.

NOTE: This Damiana seems never to have married yet gave birth to three children and adopted another two.

If  anyone needs information on any of this, just ask.

Friday, August 29, 2014

Mi Padrino de Confirmacion, Telesfor Archuleta Y Otros Archuleta's De Rowe, New Mexico En La Primer Guerra Mundial

Telesfor(o) Archuleta's World War I record. Telesfor, my padrino de confirmacion, was one of three Archuletas to actually serve in World War I from Rowe, New Mexico. They were all close cousins. The other two were Patricio Archuleta and a Juan de Jesus Archuleta. Patricio was the son of Jose Antonio Archuleta and Manuela Bowles and Juan de Jesus was the son of Marcos Archuleta and Gertrudes Alarid.

A lot of information is on this sheet for Telefsor(o), his father, mother, brother and wife. His penmanship is a bit rough, but we must consider it was November 19, 1919 in New Mexico. Education was rough and hard to find, public schools, if any, were to be found only in Santa Fe and maybe Las Vegas.
Front of a post card Telesfor sent to his wife Teresa Gallegos Archuleta from France while he was in the service there during la "Primera Guerra Mundial" (First World War).
Here is the back of the card, written in Spanish. Click on the image to see it regular size. The translation is as follows:

Mrs. Teresita G. Archuleta.

My dearest wife, I beg my God that when this (card) arrives (and) in your hands I hope it finds you well (vuena) in union and in company of all the family at home. 

Note: You can try and figure out the rest yourself. It is just a card from France during the war and he laments there is no picture to send.

The pictures below are the only ones I could find, none was available for my padrino Telesfor(o) Archuletas.

This is Patricio Archuleta
This is Juan de Jesus Archuleta

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Sebestian Benavidez

Pretty much everything I know about Sebestian Benavidez, my grandfather's first cousin, is on this document. Interesting document and picture postcard. 

Friday, August 15, 2014

Look No Further, New Mexico Is The Homeland

Look No Further, New Mexico Is The Homeland. After 416 (1598 to 2014) years here we need look no further for our history, it is right here under our noses. Our ancestors came north from Mexico under the direction and with don Juan de Onate. As a New Mexican or a descendant of a New Mexican, New Mexico is the homeland. Your history is here. The history of your ancestors is right here in New Mexico, everywhere you look.

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Como esta usted? Como estas tu? Como estan ustedes?

Greetings and respect amongst New Mexicans that has gone by the wayside as we lose the ancient language of our forefathers and transition over to English.

I recalled the differences in the then and the now while reading the book titled "Canones, Values, Crisis, and Survival in a Northern New Mexico Village" written by Paul Kutsche and John R. Van Ness and published by the University of New Mexico Press in Albuquerque in 1981.

Here the authors state that "The rules for using tu and usted are clear, and still observed. Children call each other tu, adults call children tu, very close friends call each other tu with an important exception noted below. Strangers and casual acquaintances call each other usted. But usted carries another shade of meaning which over rides familiarity, it is a term of respect. Thus, compadres address each other as as usted no matter how close their friendship or degree of kinship may be , because they are required to show respect for each other, in fact, they may have called each other tu before becoming compadres and have to shift to the respectful term therafter".

 I clearly recall this. I did not even understand the reason for this at the time, but I recall what these folks write in this interesting book. My mothers brother baptized me, he was my padrino and his wife my madrina. As such they were not just my mother's brother and sister in law, they were also her compadre and comadre. And as such she refered to her brother as "usted". She used the same term for her comadre. Como esta usted! Instead as  the usual "como estas tu" that she used with her sisters and other brother.

All of this is going by the wayside. It is going, if it is not already gone. A sad chapter in our always transitioning culture.

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

More on Peones in New Mexico

Just reading the book titled "Canones, Values, Crisis, and Survival in a Northern New Mexico Village" written by Paul Kutsche and John R. Van Ness and published by the University of New Mexico Press in Albuquerque in 1981. So far I have read about 1/2 of the book and have found only one (1) thing I disagree with, and then only slightly. That in itself is amazing as I am a harsh critic of authors who pretend to know what they are writing about when writing about New Mexico and/or New Mexicans. This book is an excellent resource for the way life was back in the 1960's in Northern New Mexico villages for New Mexican Hispanos. I recommend it to anyone who has an interest.

We bought the book at the Angel Fire, New Mexico Library last week, it has been on the shelf there since 1981 until July of 2014 and has never been checked out, not once. Not a single time. That in itself speaks volumes.
Anyway, the authors mention that there is not nor probably ever were any stereotypical peones in Canones. Here I quote "There certainly is not and probably never has been a patron in Canones. There are, however, many patrones and many peones. A man who works for another man is his peon, and the employer is the patron." This is the way it really was for the great majority, regardless of what has been written or who has written it. The term peon was a proud term, both to the worker and to the one who hired him. Sometimes a man was a patron and sometimes a peon.

Check out previous post on this weblog on the subject at hand here.

Saturday, June 14, 2014

Las Ruedas, For Sale Again

The old Las Ruedas town site is the grassy area on the upper right hand of the picture.  Click on the image(s) to make them larger.

Las Ruedas is for sale again. Jane Fonda put it up this past week. Here are some photos of Las Ruedas and environs today.

I last visited the area a few years ago with some relatives who had arranged with the ranch foreman, the late Gilbert (Gille) Ortiz, another Archuleta descendant, to visit the site. Gilbert led us down and briefed us on the site as he was probably the best informed. He had worked the ranch since he was in high school.

Las Ruedas was one of 3 small Hispanic villages on the old Los Trigos Land Grant.  The others being Pajarito and Los Trigos. The only one still in the hands of descendants is Pajarito. Las Ruedas is about 2 miles away from Rowe, New Mexico and I-25.

Anyway, Las Ruedas is long gone. The last person buried in the old cemetery is my great grand mother Maria Ana Duran. Her husband, Juan de Jesus Archuleta is most likely buried there also. No way to identify the few graves still visible.
This is one of the several houses and out buildings on the property for sale.
The grassy area to the right is immediately below the old Las Ruedas town site.

Jane Fonda is letting go of her New Mexico ranch, "a sanctuary and a place of great joy" known as Forked Lightning.

"The ranch encompasses 2,300 acres outside Santa Fe, and includes 3.5 winding miles of the Pecos River. The actress and activist bought the property -- part of a larger historic ranch once owned by oilman Buddy Fogelson and his wife, actress Greer Garson -- back in 2000. She is asking  $19.5 million. That includes the 10,000-square-foot River House, which is the main residence; a 2,000-square-foot guest house dubbed the Hacienda; and a 3,500-square-foot Log House, where Fonda lived while she was building the River House."

To have $19.5 million laying around. 

Alas, the old home of my ancestors will change hands again. My hope is that who ever buys it takes care of it and allows some limited access to it for folks wanting to see where their ancestors once lived.

Thursday, June 12, 2014

Ocho Reales

Two "ocho reales" Mexican coins. The top one from1886 and the bottom from 1836. This was THE coin in New Mexico, in the the west as a whole and even the western part of the United States for the better part of the early and mid 1800's.

The term "real or reales" hung around a lot longer than the coin really. In my youth the term ocho reales meant one American dollar, quatro reales was a 50 cent piece and dos reales was a quarter. It was understood all over the place by Spanish speaking New Mexicans. Since there was no 12 and 1/2 cent piece there were no uno real coin. Dos, quatro and ocho reales was it.  Mostly applied to coin.... as compared to the greenback which was called a peso.

The English term two bits, four bits, six bits a dollar referred to the Mexican Ocho real coin.

There were no Mexican dos or quatro real coins, it is my understanding they cut the ocho real coin into 8 pieces. Thus the 2 bit English term.

Money spoke Spanish back then, especially in the frontier. And New Mexico seems like the eternal frontier.

Sunday, June 8, 2014

Our New Mexican History is like a Multi Dimensional Puzzle

Our New Mexican history is a huge multidimensional puzzle. It  is made up of the people. This includes and included mostly Hispanic New Mexicans, Native Americans, a few Africans and later French. Lastly, starting about 1810, the Americans.

This history includes the land, New Mexico, and the lands our ancestors utilized. We must keep in mind that initially New Mexico was huge, huge! It has been shrinking ever since the Spanish took possession of the province. Initially, as part of New Spain, it included everything west of the Mississippi all the way to the Pacific Ocean and north to places unknown. On the south it was bounded by the Rio Grande (El Rio Bravo del Norte).

This history also includes time, for Hispanic New Mexicans, our history in the area starts  in 1527 with Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. It proceeds  through 1540 with the explorations of Francisco Coronado and others and then begins in earnest in 1598 with don Juan de Onate and our ancestors who came north from Mexico to establish the colony. It includes the expulsion of our ancestors by the Native Americans in the 1680 revolt. It encompasses their return, with additional settlers who again came north, this time led by don Diego de Vargas in 1693 -1695. The revolt was by the Native Americans and some mixed Spanish/Native Americans and the expelled included most of the Spanish and some Native Americans who had embraced Catholicism. A mixed bag as we say today.

The New Mexican land was vast, though shrinking over time, it was still vast. The time was long, interrupted at various intervals, but still very, very long, 1527 to the present. Almost 500 years. The people, our ancestors, were few. Very few, especially when taken into the perspective of time and space. The actual numbers never amounted to much until here recently. And those numbers have dispersed all over the country and many foreign countries.

And they all fit together, not real neat, but they all fit. Just like a multidimensional puzzle. The most interesting to me is the people, our ancestors. Since they were few it is possible to find out who they were, when and where they were born and how they lived and died. Their trials, the hardships, the triumphs. Like it or not we ended up being related by blood to one degree or another. The poor, the rich, the educated and the illerate, we all ended up related. Como luego dicen, una gran familia.

Our New Mexican history is not like American history. Not at all and not in the least. The "Americans" were scattered (concentrated) over a much smaller area with much greater numbers and a much reduced time frame. The American history starts about 1620 and proceeds from there. This is 93 years shorter than our history here in New Mexico! 93 years shorter and millions upon millions of people coming from many countries and the African continent. Santa Fe was an established place way before the first "Pilgrim" set foot on Plymouth Rock. The Americans in the then America came in droves, in huge human waves from all over Europe and Africa.

Not so our ancestors, they came and stayed and added a few here and there. But so few were added that you can identify them, sometimes individually, as you look at the historical documents. You can identify the "heroes", the idiots, the priests, the church goers the nay sayers the soldiers, etc., etc.

One bad thing about this is that the New Mexican population(s) remained stable, or grew very slowly. The New Mexicans had great difficulty getting people, any material needed and direction from the center of government in far away Mexico or Spain. As a result time seemed to stand still between 1598 and about 1810 when the "Americans" arrived. They came with their new technologies which New Mexicans had only vague ideas what they were.

Native Americans in New Mexico were essentially stuck in the stone age. Dependent on Hispanic New Mexicans for any thing that did not grow or was born locally. That includes the horse that changed the way they lived. All of a sudden, with the arrival of the Spanish, they were a stone age people but now were mounted on a horse.

This is what the Americans found in 1846 when they captured and annexed New Mexico. The Americans had known how many New Mexicans there were and how many ancient weapons they had. It would and was a cakewalk taking control. And that is what they did.

Monday, June 2, 2014

General Kearney in Las Vegas, New Mexico

August 15, 1846

Mr. Acalde, and people of New Mexico: I have come amongst you by the orders of my government, to take possession of your country, and extend over it the law of the United States, we consider it, and have done so for some time, a part of the territory of the United States.  We come amongst you as friends - not as enemies; as protectors not as conquerors.  We come among you for your benefit[not for your injury, "Henceforth I absolve you from all allegiance to the Mexican government, and from all obedience to General Armijo.  He is no longer your governor [great sensation] I am your governor.  

I shall not expect you to take up arms and follow me to fight your own people, who may oppose me; but I now tell you, that those who remain peaceably at home, attending to their corps and their herds, shall be protected by me, in their property, their persons, and their religion; not a pepper nor an onion, shall be disturbed or taken by my troops without pay, or by the consent of the owner.  

But listen! he who promises to be quiet, and is found in arms against me, I will hang.  From the Mexican government you have never received protection.  The Apaches and Navajoes come down from the mountains and carry off your sheep, and even your women, whenever they please.  My government will correct all this.  It will keep off the Indians, protect you and your persons and property; and, I repeat again, will protect you in your religion.  

I know you are all great Catholics; that some of your priests have told you all sorts of stories-that we should ill-treat your women, and brand them on the cheek as you do your mules on the hip.  It is all false.  My government respects your religion as much as the Protestant religion, and allows each man to worship his Creator as his heart tells him best.  The laws protect the Catholic as well as the Protestant, the weak as well as the strong; the poor as well as the rich.

  I am not a Catholic myself - I was not brought up in that faith; but at least one-third of my army are Catholics and I respect a good Catholic as much as a good Protestant.  There goes my army - you see but a small portion of it; there are many more behind - resistance is useless. "Mr. Alcaide, and you two captains of militia, the laws of my country require that all men who hold office under me shall take the oath of allegiance I do not wish, for the present, until affairs become more settled, to disturb your form of government.  if you are prepared to take oaths of allegiance, I shall continue you in office, and support your authority.

Sunday, June 1, 2014

Que Hera Su Nombre?

What was your New Mexican ancestors real name? Was it Jane or Juana? Was it Juan or Johnny? Was it Juan de Jesus or J.J.? Was it Juan Carlos or J.C.?

Sort of hard to tell what name New Mexican's used a few years ago. Especially if they had names that were hard to pronounce in English. People changed their names, I did too. Hard to go through life with a name like Nemesio, Maria del Carmel, Chrisostomo or Chrisostoma, Higino, Veneranda or Policarpio... You get the drift. Our parents gave us names that meant something to them at the time. I have a cousin, who shall remain unnamed, who is always deploring names our common ancestors saddled us with. I personally do not mind the name given to me, but understand his concern.

I have used various different names over the years, as have a lot of us. I recall a special day for me, a very special day. My very first day of school with the Catholic Sisters at Saint Anthoney's School in Pecos, New Mexico.  At our first recesses we realized we had all been given brand new names by the nuns who did not know a word of Spanish. We spent our free time over the next few days getting used to them. Francisco (Kiko) was now Frank, Manuel (Melo) was now Manny, Hernandez (Nandes) was now Ernie, Mariquita was Mary, Jacinta was now Jackie. Again you get the picture.

Sometimes the time we were baptized was the last time we used the baptismal name. I remember my mother. I knew her as Ruby or Refugio. It was not until after she passed that I got to know her birth name, Maria del Refugio.

It is different now with names for the descendants of New Mexicans, gone, for the most part are the old Spanish names. Instead we have Josh, Mariah, Jacob etc., etc.

That is not bad, it just is.

Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Dwayne and Geert performing for Flaco Jimenez's 70th Birthday.

Two young guys from the Netherlands, Holland. They are good, well worth the look and listening.

Click here to hear it.

 Wish I could play and sing like this.

Thursday, May 22, 2014

Richens Lacy (Uncle Dick) Wootton

Jesus Silva and his friend, old Uncle Dick Wootton

Richens Lacy (Uncle Dick) Wootton was a "famous" trapper and built the toll road over Raton Pass in the middle 1800's. He was known as Richard (Uncle Dick) Wootton. He married Maria Dolores LeFevre on the 6th of March of 1848 in Taos, New Mexico. Maria Dolores was the daughter of Manuel LeFevre, a Frenchman and Maria Teodora Lopez a local woman from Taos, New Mexico. Uncle Dick had other wives, Maria Dolores was the first, together they had 4 children. Maria Dolores died in 1855 in Southern Colorado. The book where the quotes below come from is a very interesting read.

Refernce the book "Uncle Dick Wooten" written by Howard L Conrad published originally by W.E. Dibble & CO. of Chichago, IL in 1890. The quotes attributed to Uncle Dick below are from there;

"I have observed in reading our frontier literature, that the tendency has been to exegerate and overdraw everything, and the effect of this has been, to give the Eastern public a wrong idea of the conditions which existed in this country (New Mexico and the early West), and the character of the men who found their way into these savage wilds in search of wealth and adventure."

"I could use a gun as well as anybody, knew how to handle a team, and while never particularly in love with hard work I wasn't afraid of it.... I got along first rate."

Monday, May 19, 2014

Manuel LeFevre and New Mexicans

Manuel LeFevre was a Frenchman, born circa 1810 in Missouri or Canada, one or the other. Manuel married a New Mexican woman named Maria Teodora Lopez in Taos. Maria Teodora was the daughter of Ramon Lopez and Maria de la Luz Martín. Manuel and Maria Teodora married on December 1, 1827 in Taos and made their home there. All total they had 11 children, at least one of whom died while young, the first Maria Pacifica.

  1. Maria Leonor - Birth date unknown
  2. Maria Dolores - Born June 29, 1828 
  3. Jose Vicente - Born April 7, 1830
  4. Francisco Antonio - Born April 3, 1831 
  5. Maria Francisca Guillerma - Born March 12, 1833
  6. Maria Pacifica - Born February 4, 1835 
  7. Maria de La Luz - Born May 18, 1843
  8. Maria Teodora - Born July 16, 1848 **
  9. Manuel Carlos -  Born April 23, 1850
  10. Jose Manuel - Born October 16, 1851
  11. Maria Pacifica - Born May 22, 1852
** Maria Teodora married Ricardo Ortiz, a distant relative of mine, but that is another story all together.

Anyway, Manuel LeFevre was not in Taos when the New Mexicans revolted against the American occupation of New Mexico in January of 1847. It is not known where he actually was. But he was to be found at Bents Fort just across the Mexican/US Border, near present day La Junta, Colorado, when the news of the revolt arrived there. 

When the news of the revolt arrived at Bents Fort a group of 23 men volunteered to go and retaliate for the Americans killed. In all reality it was to retaliate for Americans and their New Mexican sympathizers killed as there were several New Mexicans killed also. Among those going were Lucien Maxwell, Manuel LeFevre and the author of the book referenced here, Lewis H. Garrard. Here he wrote;

 " We crossed the river into Nuevo Mejico at the fort (Bent's Fort) ford, and followed the Santa Fe Trail, which kept (to) the river bank. five of us were mounted; the rest were to get animals at the PURGATORIE, ninety miles distant. The object of the expedition in which we were about to engage was to travel as far as we could towards Taos; kill and scalp every Mexican to be found and collect all of the animals belonging to the Company of the United States."

NOTE: The writer, Lewis H. Garrard, is writing about a trip to Taos in the winter of 1847 after the revolt of New Mexicans in Taos and the assassination of Governor Bent.

Anyway, the group never got to "kill and scalp" any Mexicans. But the plan was there none the less and begs the question, would Manuel LeFever have actually "killed and scalped every Mexican to be found". Or maybe he would have been a bit more selective being that he had a Mexican wife and at least 7 half breed children with her. 

Reference the book "Wa-to-yah and the Taos Trail" written by Lewis H. Garrard and published by the University of Oklahoma Press.

Also reference page 421 of the book "Origins of New Mexico Families, A Genealogy of the Spanish Colonial Period", the revised edition published by the Museum of New Mexico Press and written by Fray Anjelico Chavez.

NOTE: The name LeFevre has changed in New Mexico to Lefebre.

Saturday, May 10, 2014

Maria del Refugio Benavidez - 1905 to 1998

Maria del Refugio (Ruby) Benavidez was born on April 5, 1905 in Rowe, New Mexico and died in Santa Fe, New Mexico on February 26, 1998.

Maria del Refugio's ancestors came to New Mexico into what was then known as New Spain with the very first colonists who arrived here with don Juan de Onate. They arrived in New Mexico on the 30th of April of 1598.  They crossed the Rio del Norte (Rio Grande) at EL Paso.  Two, out of several, interesting ancestors that arrived on that day were her 10th great grandparents Juan Lopez Olguin Villasana and his wife Catalina Villanueva as were another set of 10th great grandparents, Pedro Robledo and his wife Catalina Lopez. Both couples had their families with them.

Juan Lopez Olguin Villsana and his wife, Catalina Villanuva, arrived in good health at the future colony north of Santa Fe. Catalina is interesting because in a muster roll she identified her father as an "Indian from the valley of Mexico". Catalina was a Mestiza, 1/2 Mexican Indian and 1/2 Spanish. Catalina, her husband Juan and one daughter (Ana) were members of Onates 1597 expidition and some of the "first colonists".

Don Pedro Robledo was to suffer a tragic accident and died because of it. He was thrown from his horse and died on the May 21, 1598 at a place known as Paraje Robledo near present day Radium Springs, New Mexico. The Robledo family burried him there and continued up into Santa Cruz near Santa Fe where the first Spanish colony was established. Don Pedro was the 1st known settler of european decent to die in what today is the United States of America. Other Europeans had died, but they were soldiers or Catholic priests and not settlers, don Pedro was the very first. The Robledo family was a very famous Spanish family in those early days of the colony.

Most Spanish New Mexicans were expelled from New mexico during the 1680 Pueblo Indian Revolt, some came back during the reconquest of the province with don Diego de Vargas and more came at that time for the very first time. Amongst them were Maria del Refugio's (Ruby) Benavidez 5th great grandparents Juan Esteban Benavidez, known as "El Mozo" and his wife Maria de Diezma who came north from Zacatecas. Juan Eateban was a soldier/settler. Juan Esteban Benavidez and his wife, Maria de Diezma arrived in New Mexico during December of 1695. Both Juan Esteban and Maria de Diezma were dead by 1702. Many, many of their descendants still live in New Mexico and Colorado.

Monday, May 5, 2014

Los Herreras, Los Gorras Blancas Y Poco Mas

The Herrera brothers, Juan Jose bottom left, Pablo standing and Nicanor seated right.

Juan Jose, Pablo and Nicanor Herrera from San Miguel County are identified by many as associated with, if not the organizers of "Las Gorras Blancas" in New Mexico. A good dissertation on them and Las Gorras Blancas comes from the book "Mexicano Resistance in the Southwest" written by Robert J. Rosenbaum and published by Southern Methodist University Press. Most folks who are familiar with Northern New Mexico are familiar with Las Gorras Blancas.

This family has a very interesting story as well as genealogy. Here is a sampling:

Manuel Herrera the son of Jose Miguel Herrera and Maria Josefa Saavedra married Maria Paula Archibeque, the daughter of Juan Domingo Archibeque and Maria Josefa Gallegos on the 5th of October 1832 at San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Manuel Herrera and Maria Paula Archibeque had the following children;

1) Juana Paula Herrera - Baptismal date July 21, 1833
2) Maria Paula del Refugio Herrera - Baptismal date January 15, 1835
3) Juan Jose de la Cruz Herrera - Baptismal date September 24, 1837
4) Ambrosia Herrera - Birthdate/baptismal dates, December 7, 1841/December 19, 1841
5) Jose Pablo Herrera - Birthdate 1843
6) Nicanor Herrera - Birthdate/baptismal dates, November 28, 1846/December 5, 1846

As far as is known all were born in San Miguel del Bado, New Mexico.

Juan Jose, Pablo and Nicanor Herrera from San Miguel County are listed in several of the U.S. Federal Census. NOTE: Be advised that ages listed on the census can vary a whole lot.

1850 - Tecolote, San Miguel County, New Mexico

Manuel de Herrera
Maria Paubla de Herrera, 32
Juana de Herrera, 17
Refugio de Herrera, 15
Juan Jose de Herrera, 13
Jose Pablo de Herrera, 7
Maria Ambrosia de Herrera, 9
Nicanor de Herrera 

In 1850 living next door is

Maria Justa Urioste, 30
Jose Feliciano Urioste, 1 year old
Luciano Trujillo, 25

1860 - El Salitre in San Miguel County, New Mexico

Manuel Herrera, 58 listed as a laborer,
Maria Paula Herrera, 40,
Ambrosia Herrera, 18,
Pablo Herrera, 17,
Nicanor Herrera, 14,

In 1860 and right next door lived;

Justa Urioste, 58, listed as a servant,
Feliciano Herrera, 12,
Estefana Herrera, 9,
Pedro Herrera, 4,
Antonia Lucero, 13,
Juan Lucero, 10.

1870 - Ojitos Frios in San Miguel County, New Mexico

Paula Herrera, 48 listed as a seamstress,
Pablo Herrera, 25 listed as a freighter,
Juan Jose Herrera, 33, listed as a freighter,
Nicanor Herrera 23, listed as a farmer,
Justa Urioste 48, listed as a domestic servant,
Antonia Lucero 23, listed as a domestic servant,
Estefana Herrera 17, listed as a domestic servant,
Felicario Herrera, 23, listed as a farm laborer,
Pedro Herrera 13, living at home.

A note of real interest is that living with this family or right next door is "Justa Urioste". Her relationship to the Manuel Herrera and Maria Paula Archeveque family is not noted in the documents we have looked at but there is no doubt that there is some very close relationship(s). Justa Urioste is listed as living next door in 1850 and 1860 and in the same house in 1870.

Justa Urioste had at least 3 and maybe 4 children, all of them with no father listed:

1) Feliciano Herrera (Urioste) - Born June 17, 1849 from unknown parents and baptized as Feliciano Herrera by Manuel Herrera and Maria Paula Archeveque.
2) Doroteo Urioste - Born January 5th 1855 and his padrinos were the daughter of Manuel Herrera and Maria Paula Archeveque, Juana Paula Herrera and her husband Ramon Ulibarri.
3) Pedro Celestino Urioste  - Born May 25 1857 and his padrinos were brother and sister and the children of  Manuel Herrera and Maria Paula Archeveque, Pablo and Ambrosia Herrera.
4) Ursula Urioste - Born on October 21, 1859 and baptized by another son of Manuel Herrera and Maria Paula Archeveque, Juan Jose Herrera and a woman identified as Luisa Pinard.

On January 31, 1871 "Feliciano Urioste" listed as the son of Justa Urioste married Altagragia Jarmaillo the daughter of Vicente Jaramillo and Juana Gallegos from "los Ojitos" (Ojitos Frios). The marriage occurred at Nuestra Senora de Los Dolores Catholic Church in Las Vegas, New Mexico. NOTE: Feliciano is listed as Herrera in both the 1860 and 1870 census.

On January 7 1891, twenty 0ne (21) years later almost to the day, Altagracia Jaramillo's son Toribio Herrera is marrying Luisa Gallegos. This marriage also occurred at Nuestra Senora de Los Dolores Catholic Church in Las Vegas, New Mexico. Here Toribio's father is listed as Feliciano Herrera.

Saturday, May 3, 2014

New Mexico Justice for Joe Felipe Gallegos, 1878 Style?

The speed with which Judge L. Bradford Prince (pictured above) worked in dispatching court business is illustrated by a case which came before him during his first session which he held of the Mora County District Court.

On Friday morning of the week that the court was in session, the grand jury bought in an indictment against Joe Felipe Gallegos for the murder of Sabino Lopez on August 9, 1878. Gallegos was immediately arrested and his trial went on in the afternoon of that very same day.

Mr. Thomas B. Catron (of Santa Fe Ring fame) was assigned to prosecute the case and a Mr. Leyden. who had just been admitted to the bar, was named to defend Joe Felipe Gallegos. The trial continued Friday night until nearly 11:30 o'clock and throughout the day Saturday. The jury returned a verdict of guilty of murder in the 4th degree Saturday evening. A sentence of seven years imprisonment, the highest penalty under the circumstances, was imposed. Thus the defendant was indicted, arrested, tried, convicted and sentenced, all within less than 2 days.

It may be doubted that this speed was always in the best interest of complete and impartial justice in individual cases.


  1. Frank W. Clancy, "Reminiscences of Territorial Days", Proceedings, New Mexico Bar Association, 1919 on page 55.
  2. Frank W. Clancy, "In Memory of L. Bradford Prince." Historical Society of New Mexico, publication No. 25 on page 5.
  3. Arie W. Poldervart, "Black Robed Justice". Published by the Historical Society of New Mexico on page 112.

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

History is history, no matter what happened or whose fault it was. It happened!

Some folks gloss over the reason recorded history is what it is. The belief that "victors write the story". While that is common, it is not always true, not by a long shot. What is true is that the literate person with the means wrote history. The literate person with the means writes history. Not the illiterate person with all of the paper and ink in the world. The literate person with the means wrote it, writes it! The non literate person/persons/peoples were, and are, left on the sidelines unable to read what others wrote. That is a fact today and that was a fact in the past.

New Mexico history is a perfect case in point. The "original" history was written by the Spanish, next by the Americans and lately by anyone with a computer and a weblog. It does not matter if they are  Hispanic, Native American or some other genre of folks. The only thing about this, the good thing, is that current "historians" cannot really lie successfully. The original history that is being written about is very well documented, in several languages, but well documented non the less. If someone takes liberty with the truth, they are soon called on it. There may be interpretations, but that is the extent of the differences allowed in today's world.

Illiterate peoples have never written history, they will never write history. Not then, not now and not in the future. That is a fact of life that everyone must live with. The degree of literacy determines the degree of the historical narrative that a person or group writes. History, like time, rolls on. Someone may document it if they can, but it rolls on non the less. We, in the current time, can yell and scream about the history that has been written, but the only thing we can do is to highlight the error and document the truth.

And, this is a big AND, we do have hindsight now. We can correct the narrative by documenting the truth of what was written about in the past. And/or we can write about the past in a new light as documents are discovered about events in the past which no one had written before.

The bottom line is that you have to be able to write about it to leave a trail. A trail that can be looks at as new information is gathered. "Oral history" is a joke, a big funny joke. If that is what you will hang your hat on, good luck.

One other thing, be careful that what you write you can verify. If not you will be called on it. The documents you use as source material can be contested, but they are there. No more cowboy history! Please.....