Tuesday, December 9, 2008

Federal Census, Watrous, Mora County, New Mexico Territory (Part 3 of 5)

Click on the image to make it larger.

101. Demesio Valdez, head of household age 41 who was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He was a day laborer, unemployed for 4 months who could read and write but not speak English. He owned his own house on a farm. Note; He could read and write Spanish but not read English.

102. Perfecta Valdez his wife at age 37 who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could not read, write nor speak English.

103. Marcelino Valdez a son age 11 who was born in New Mexico.

104. Ninfa Valdez a daughter age 5 who was born in New Mexico.

105. Juan Gurule head of the household at age 27. He was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents and he was a day laborer who was unemployed 3 months and could not read nor write nor speak English. He lived in a rented house.

106. Josefa Gurule, his wife who was 26 years old and born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could not read nor write nor speak English.

107. Carolina Gurule, their daughter age 6 who was born in New Mexico.

108. Manuel Gurule, their son age 4 who was born in New Mexico.

109. Bartolo Gallegos head of the household at age 30 who was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He was a day laborer who could neither read, write nor speak English and he lived in his own house on a farm.

110. Flor Gallegos, his wife age 24 who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could not read, write nor speak English.

111. Rumaldita Gallegos, their daughter age 8 who was born in New Mexico.

112. Gregorio Trujillo head of the household at age 27. He was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents and was a day laborer who could not read, write nor speak English and lived in his own house on a farm.

113. Adelaida Trujillo his wife at age 25 who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could not read nor write nor speak English.

114. Eduardo Trujillo  a son age 7 who was born in New Mexico

115. Juan Trujillo another son age 4 also born in New Mexico.

116. ????????? Trujillo, head of the household age 27 who was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents who could not read, write nor speak English. He was a day laborer who was unemployed 2 and 1/2 months and lived in a rented house. 

Note; Could not make out the first name. But in another publication titled New Mexico Marriages, La Junta (Watrous) September 1873 to April 1908 published by the Hispanic Genealogical Research Center of New Mexico, on page 93 the last entry states "On the 5th of November of 1899, I presented the matrimony of Melquiades Trujillo, from Watrous, legitimate son of Jose Bernardo Trujillo and of Rafaelita Romero, both deceased with Donrey Torres, from Watrous, letigimate daughter of Juan Lorenzo Torres and of the deceased Francisquita Trujillo. 

117. Domes Trujillo, his wife at age  22 who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could read, write and speak English. Read the note above for her name.

118. Nicolas Romero head of the house at age 23. He was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents and was a day laborer out of a job 6 months and could read, write and speak English. He lived in a rented house.

119. Juanita Romero his wife at age 23. She was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. It s not indicated if she could read etc.

120. Ambrosio Martines head of the house at age 30, he was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He was a day laborer unemployed 3 months who could read and write but not speak English. He lived in a rented house. Note; He could read and write Spanish but not speak English. Ambrosio was my great uncle on my fathers side.

121. Trinidad  Martines his wife at age 27 and born in New Mexico who could not read and write or speak English. Note; Trinidad Velarde was my great aunt on my fathers side. Her mother Petra Montoya was still alive and living in Watrous at this time. See the 2nd installment  of the Watrous 1900 census.

122. Florencio Martines age 26 and head of the household. He was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He was a day laborer unemployed 2 months who could read and write but not speak English. He lived in a rented house. Note; He could read and write Spanish but not speak English. Florencio was my great uncle on my fathers side.

123. Bicenta Martines age 24 his wife who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could not read nor write nor speak English. Note; Vicenta Velarde was my great aunt on my fathers side. Her mother Petra Montoya was still alive and living in Watrous at this time. See the 2nd installment  of the Watrous 1900 census.

124. Preciliano Martines age 29 and the head of the household was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He was a day laborer unemployed 5 months who could neither read nor write nor speak English. He lived in a rented house. Note; Preciliano Martines was my paternal grandfather who was actually 32 years old, having been born in 1868. 

125. Paulina Martines his wife age 27 who was born in New Mecico as were both of her parents. Note; It does not indicate if she could read etc. Paulina Velarde was my paternal grandmother. Her mother Petra Montoya was still alive and living in Watrous at this time. See the 2nd installment  of the Watrous 1900 census.

Note of Interest; Three brothers married three sisters as noted above.

126. Herminio Martines their son age 4 and who was born in New Mexico. Herminio was my uncle.

127. Reynoldo Martines their son age 3 and who was born in New Mexico. Reynoldo was my father.

128. Eustorgio Martines their son age 1 and who was born in New Mexico. Eustergio was also my paternal uncle.  Lots of spellings errors here.

129. Meliton Salazar head of the household at age 40 who was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He was a day laborer unemployed for one month and who could read and write and who could not speak english. He was living in his own home on a farm. Note; He could read and write Spanish but not speak English.

130. Petra Sallazar, his wife at age 35. She was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could neither read nor write nor speak English.

131. Santos Salazar, a daughter age 10 who was born in New Mexico.

132. Adeladia Sanchez, another daughter age 8 who was born in New Mexico.

133. Alejandra Trujillo a widow and head of the household at age 50, she was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She was a laundress unemployed for 2 months and could not read nor write nor speak English. She lived in a rented house.

134. Canuta Trujillo, a single daughter age 26 who was born in New Mexico and who could neither read nor write nor speak English.

135. Margarita Trujillo, a single daughter age 25 who was born in New Mexico and who could neither read nor write nor speak English.

136. Vicente Trujillo, a single son age 19 who was born in New Mexico and who could neither read nor write nor speak English.

137. Pedro Trujillo a son age 11 who was born in New Mexico and who could neither read nor write nor speak English.

138. Mariano Trujillo a son age 6 who was born in New Mexico.

139. Jose Vallejos head of the household at age 41 who was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents and was a day laborer unemployed 4 and 1/2 months who could not read, write nor speak English. He was living in a rented house.

140. Barbarita Vallejos, his wife age 39 who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could neither read, write nor speak english.

141. Lucia Vallejos, their single daughter age 15 who was born in New Mexico and could neither read, write or speak English.

142. Roberto Vallejos,  their son age 10 who was born in New Mexico and who could neither read nor write nor speak English.

143. Petrolina Vallejos, their daughter age 9 who was born in New Mexico.

144. Eloysa Vallejos, their daughter age 3 and who was born in New Mexico.

145. Silveria Vallejos, their daughter age 1 who was born in New Mexico.

146. Amos Calvin head of the household at age 38 who had been born in New Mexico and whose father was born in Kansas and his mother in Missouri. He was a day laborer who was unemployed 5 months and who could read, write and speak English. He lived in a rented house.

147. Nettie Calvin his wife age 31 who was born in New Mexico and whose father Illinois and her mother in Iowa. She could read, write and speak English.

148. Mable Calvin age 10 who was born in New Mexico and who could read, write and speak English.

149. Mandie Calvin, their daughter age 8 who was born in New Mexico.

150. Roy Calvin age 7 who was born in New Mexico.

Continued on the following post.

Sunday, December 7, 2008

1900 Federal Census, Watrous, Mora County, New Mexico Territory (Part 2 of 5)



Click on the Image to make it larger...... Page 2 of 5

51. Israel Cosner head of the house at age 63 and was born in Virginia as were both of his parents. He was a merchant who could read, write and speak English. He lived/owned his own home on a farm.

52. Mary Cosner his wife also 64 who was born in Pennsylvania as were both of her parents. She could read, write and speak English.

53. Mandy Cosner their single daughter. 20 years of age and she could read and write and speak English.

54. Birney Cosner, head of the house at age 26. He was born in Missouri and his father in Virginia and his mother in Pennsylvania. He is listed as a merchant who could read, write and speak English and owned his own farmhouse.

55. Arthelie Cosner his wife age 26 who was born in Missouri as were both of her parents. She could read, write and speak English.

56. Esther Cosner their daughter age 3 who was born in New Mexico.

57. Grace Cosner their daughter age 2 who was born in New Mexico.

58. Leonard Maglag head of the household who was 15 and single who was born in New Mexico and whose parents were both born in Kansas. He was a salesperson who had been unemployed for 4 months and could read, write and speak English. He lived in a rented house.

59. Martin Odonald head of the household who was 35 years old was born in Ireland as were both of his parents. He was a day laborer who had been unemployed 3 months and could read and write as well as speak english. He lived in a rented house.

60.  Sarah (Banks) Odonald, his wife age 22 who had been born in Pennsylvania, her parents were both born in Ireland. She could read, write and speak english. Sarah was married to Martin on Nov. 20 1895 in a civil marriage. This information if from a source other than the US Census.

61. Jose Montoya head of the household at age 41 who was a day laborer unemployed 4 months. He was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He could not read not write or speak English. He lived in his own farmhouse. See note below George Cashmore.

62. Filomena  (Valencia) Montoya his wife age 36. She was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could not read, write nor speak English. See note below George Cashmore.

63. Guadalupe Montoya their 16 year old daughter. She was single and born in New Mexico and could not read, write nor speak English.

64 Antonio Montoya their son age 15 who was born in New Mexico and who could not read, write nor speak English.

65. George Cashmore head of the household at age 39. He was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents he was listed as a day laborer who could not read, write nor speak English. He rented a house.

Note from  the publication New Mexico Marriages, La Junta Watrous, Sep. 1873 to April 1908 where it states on page 75 " On February 11, 1895 I presented in a solemn mass the matrimony of George Cashmore Jr., single son of George Cashmore Sr., deceased and Tomasa Belasquez, deceased with Teresa Montoya, single daughter of Jose E. Montoya and of Filomena Valencia from Watrous."

66. Teresita (Montoya) Cashmore his wife age 26 who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could not read nor write nor speak English.

67. Telesforo Cashmore their son at age 6 who was born in New Mexico.

68. Leonadies Cashmore their daughter age 4 who was born in New Mexico.

69. Escolastica Cashmore their daughter age 2 who had been born in New Mexico.

70.  Chas. Tipton head of the household at age 39 who was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents, he was a butcher who could read, write and speak English and who owned his own farmhouse.

71. Sarah Tipton his wife age 37 who had been born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could read, write and speak English.

72. Mattie Tipton their single daughter at age 15 who had been born in New Mexico and who could read, write and speak english.

73. Girtie Tipton age 13 who had been born in New Mexico and who could read, write and speak English.

74. Sadie Tipton age 11 who had been born in New Mexico and who could read, write and speak English.

75.  Grover Tipton their son age 7 who was born on New Mexico.

76. Clara Tipton age 4 who was born in New Mexico.

77. Ernest Tipton age 1 who was born in New Mexico.

78. William Reynold head of the household at age 35. He was born in Illinois and his father in Indiana and his mother in Missouri, he was a salesperson who could read and write and speak english. He owned his own farmhouse.

79. Matilde Reynold his wife at age 28 who was born in New Mexico and both of her parents came from Germany. She could read, write and speak English.

80. Joseph Reynold their son age 8 who was born in New Mexico.

81. Charles Reynold their son age 5 who was born in New Mexico.

82. Emily Reynold their daughter 3 who was born in New Mexico.

83. Paul Reynold their son 6 months old and born in New Mexico.

84. Mercedes Gurule head of the household at 40 years old who was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He was a day laborer who was unemployed for 4 months. He could read and write but not speak English and lived in his own farm house. He probably could read and write in Spanish but not speak English.

85. Franciscita Gurule his wife age 36 who was born in New Mexico and who could not read, write nor speak English.

86. Vinia Gurule age 17 single and born in New Mexico and who could not read, write nor speak English.

87. Petrolina Gurule their daughter age 14 and single who was born in New Mexico and who could not read, write nor speak English.

88. Fulgencio Gurule their son age 12 who was born in New Mexico and who could not read, write nor speak English.

89. Charles Byres head of household at age 31 who was born in Iowa, his father was born in Ohio and his mother in Iowa. He was a cowboy unemployed for 2 month living in a rented house. He could read, write and speak English.

90. Harry Byers, Charles' brother age 33 who was also born in Iowa like his brother. He was also a cowboy unemployed for 2 months. He could read, write and speak English.

91. Sam Buckner head of the house at age 37. He was born in Indiana and his father in Tenessee and his mother in Indiana. He was a day loborer unemployed for 3 months. He was living in a rented house and could read, write and speak English.

92. Lucy Buckner his wife age 33 who had been born in New Mexico and whose father was born in Iowa and her mother born in Indiana. She could read, write and speak English.

93. Marcy Buckner their daughter age 7 and born in New Mexico.

94. Blanch Buckner their daughter age 5 and born in New Mexico.

95. Ed Wildenstein head of the house at age 21 and single. He was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He was a blacksmith who could read, write and speak English. He lived in his own farm house.

96. Juan Valdez head of the household at age 25. He was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He was a day laborer who could not read, write nor speak english and lived in a rented house.

97. Casimira Valdez his wife at age 22 who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could not read, write nor speak English.

98. Dolores Torres age 23 head of the houshold born in New Mexico as were both of his parents who was a day laborer who could not read, write nor speak English. He lived in a rented house.

99. Adela Torres his wife age 21 who was born in New Mexoco as were both of her parents. She could not read, write nor speak English.

100. Petra Montoya age 50 a widow and head of the house, she was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could not read, write nor speak English. Petra Montoya was my Great Grandmother. She was born in San Miguel del Bado in 17 January in 1843. During this time her 3 daughters and 3 sons in law also lived in Watrous. Refer to the other notes.

To be Continued.

Saturday, December 6, 2008

1900 Federal Census, Watrous, Mora County, New Mexico Territory (Part 1 of 5)

Click on the image to make it larger

Taken on the 20th day of June in 1900 by Juan B. Blea.

1. Harvey Chandler, the head of the household at age 25 who was born in New Mexico and whose father had been born in New York and his mother in Iowa, He was a cowboy who could read, write and speak English and was living in a rented house.

2. Catherine Chandler, the wife at age 26 who was born in Colorado and whose father had been born in New York and whose mother had been born in Arkansas. She could read, write and speak English.

3. Mildred Chandler their daughter aged 5 who had been born in New Mexico.

4. Harvey Chandler Jr. aged 3 and also born in New Mexico.

5. Richard Head, the head of the household at age 54 who was born in Montana and whose father had been born in Maryland and his mother in Kentucky, He was a farmer who could read, write and speak English and owned his own house.

6. Martha Head, the wife at age 47 who was born in Canada and whose father had been born in Ireland and whose mother had been born in England. She could read, write and speak English.

7. Etta Head their daughter aged 23 and who was born in Texas. She could read, write and speak English.

8. Maggie Head another daughter aged 21 and who also was born in Texas and who could read, write and speak English.

9. Richard Head Jr. at age 8 was born in New Mexico.

10. Leandro Archuleta the head of the house at age 25 who was born in New Mexico and whose parents had both also been born in New Mexico, he was a saloon keeper who could both read and write BUT not speak English. He lived in a rented house. Leandro was probably a brother of Antonio Archuleta # 27 below. I would guess that Leandro could read and write in Spanish but not English.

11. Juanita  Archuleta the wife at age 22 who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could also read and write BUT not speak English. Juanita, like her husband,  must have been able to read and write in Spanish but not English.

12. Lucinda Archuleta their daughter age 4 and born in New Mexico.

13. Manuel Archuleta their son 1 year old who was born in New Mexico.

14. Martin Needham the head of the household who was 44 and was born in Colorado and whose father was born in Ireland and whose mother had been born in Virginia. He could read, write and speak English. He owned his own house on the farm.

15. Annie Needham his wife age 30 who was born in Ireland as were both of her parents, she could not read or write.

16. Estevan Needham their son age 12 and who was born in New Mexico.

17. Mary Needham their daughter age 8 and who was born in New Mexico.

18. Maggie Needham their other daughter aged 6 and who was born in New Mexico.

19. Ed? Woodberry age 47 the head of the house who was born in Vermont as were both of his parents. He was a hotelkeeper and could read, write and speak English and lived in a rented house.

20. Maggie Woodberry, his wife at age 33. She was born in Kentucky but her father had been born in Ireland and her mother in England. She could read, write and speak English.

21. John Woodberry, their son age 7 who had been born in New Mexico.

22. George Bretz single and age 27 head of the house who was born in Kansas and whose parents both were born in Iowa was a cowboy who lived in a rented house. He could read, write and speak English.

23. Thimothy Ferris single and head of the house at age 24 who was born in Missouri and whose father had been born in Kansas and his mother in Nebraska. He was a cowboy who lived in a rented house. He could read, write and speak English.

24. Annie Siler single and head of the house age 22 who was born in New York as were both of her parents. She was a laundress who could read, write and speak English. She was renting a house.

25. Juanita Guerin head of the house at age 49 who was a widow who was both in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She was a laundress who could neither read nor write nor speak English. She did live in her own home on the farm.

26. William Tevart, single and head of the house age 22, single, who was born in Kansas and his father was born in Nebraska and his mother in Kansas. He was a cowboy who could read, write and speak english and was living in a rented house.

27. Antonio Archuleta, married,  head of the house at age 30. He was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He could read and write but not speak English. He was a saloon keeper and lived in a house. It does not indicate if it was his or not. Antonio was probably a brother of Leandro Archuleta # 10 above. Antonio could probably read and write Spanish and not English.

28. Pablita Archuleta the wife at age 28 who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could neither read, write nor speak english.

29. Juan Archuleta their son age 7 who was born in New Mexico.

30. Eduardo Archuleta, another son age 5 who was born in New Mexico.

31. Alvina Archuleta  a daughter age 4 who was born in New Mexico.

32. Aurelia Archuleta another daughter age 1 who was also born in New Mexico.

33. Gabriel Trujillo head of the house 38 years old and who was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He was a day laborer who could not read nor write nor speak English. He lived in his own house on the farm.

34. Emilia Trujillo, his wife age 29 who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could not read, write nor speak English.

35. Ramon Trujillo their son age 15 who was born in New Mexico. He could read and write but could not speak English. Had to be that he could read and write in Spanish, but not English.

36. Andres Trujillo another son age 12 who was born in New Mexico. He could read and write but could not speak English. Had to be that he could read and write in Spanish, but not English.

37. Fidencia Trujillo, their daughter age 10 who was born in New Mexico and who could read and write but not speak English.

38. Alfredo Trujillo their son age 8 and born in New Mexico.

39.  ???cifora Trujillo a daughter age 7 and born in New Mexico.

40. Emilio Trujillo a son aged 3 and born in New Mexico.

41. Ofir Trujillo a son age 1 and born in New Mexico.

42. Manuel Tipton age 49 head of the house who was born in New Mexico as were both of his parents. He was a salesman who could read, write and speak English. He lived in his own farmhouse.

43. Jane Tipton, his wife aged 48 who was born in New Mexico as were both of her parents. She could read, write and speak English.

44. William Tipton their single son age 26 who was born in New Mexico. No occupation given but he could read, write and speak English.

45.  Albert Tipton their single son age 24who was born in New Mexico. No occupation given but he could read, write and speak English.

46. Herbert Tipton their son age 22 who was born in New Mexico. No occupation given but he could read, write and speak English.

47. Mary Tipton a single daughter age 15 who was born in New Mexico. No occupation given but he could read, write and speak English.

48. Bessie Tipton another daughter age 11 who was born in New Mexico. No occupation given but he could read, write and speak English.

49. Henry Reinken, head of the house age 47 who was born in Germany as were both of his parents. He was a merchant who could read and write English and owned his own farmhouse.

50. Clara Reinken his wife at age 36. She was born in Pennsylvania and both of her parents were born in Germany. She could read, write and speak English.

Continued on Post Below

Thursday, December 4, 2008

Plastic Jesus


- Ernie Marrs; Trad and Anon

Well, I don't care if it rains or freezes,
Long as I have my plastic Jesus
Riding on the dashboard of my car
Through all trials and tribulations, 
We will travel every nation,
With my plastic Jesus I'll go far.

CHORUS
Plastic Jesus, plastic Jesus
Riding on the dashboard of my car
Through my trials and tribulations,
And my travels thru the nations,
With my plastic Jesus I'll go far.

I don't care if it rains or freezes
As long as I've got my Plastic Jesus
Glued to the dashboard of my car,
You can buy Him phosphorescent
Glows in the dark, He's Pink and Pleasant,
Take Him with you when you're travelling far

Tuesday, November 25, 2008

A Hoe From The Santa Fe Trail Era?

You can click on any of the images to make them larger.

This hoe used to belong to my grandfather and probably has not seen any use since the mid 1950's.  It is my guess that someone gave it to him or he bought it from someone. It is old and of unusual manufacture. Here is what I think. I think the original hoe, represented here by the part with the hole that has been riveted to the lower part probably came from the United States during the Santa Fe Trail days. Someone used it until it wore out and then they riveted the original to a new slab of metal to make it useful again.

These hoes used to see a lot of action, mixing mud to make adobes and to break adobes to fit. They were also used on the family garden or milpa where the vegetables were grown. They would have also been used when cleaning the ditches etc. So I can see where they would have worn down. Sharpening hoes also wears them down.


The white spot on the image above is a quarter for comparison. Dimensions are 10 inches wide and 7 and 3/4 inches high.

Here you can see where the handle went and the fact that the original hoe wore down and rivets were used to attach it to a new head.  The work was probably done by a smith at a blacksmith shop. 

Here you can see the metal where the handle is broken. It has been broken since I knew of the hoe. Holes have been drilled so as to use screws/bolts/nails to hold the handle on the hoe. There is a bolt all of the way thru right now.
The inside face of the hoe head.




A view of the outside face of the hoe and a better look at the rivets. 

Friday, November 21, 2008

Los Taborette's


Click on the images to make it larger. 

This is an upside down view of one of my new ones.


This is a regular shot of one of my latest. Built this grey colored one earlier in the month.
This is a brown colored one I built late last month.

The post on October 24th has a picture of the taborette my grandfather found on the railroad tracks in the early 1900's when he worked for the AT&SF (Santa Fe) Railroad. These two here are patterned after that one. Not a replica but a reasonable facsimile in my book. These here are built out of a 2x12 shaped into an octagon for the seat, 2x4's for the legs and wrapped around a 4x4.

They seem a bit sturdier and can serve as a stool to sit on, a plant holder or something similar. Like I wrote in my other post on taborette's, the family seems to like them because my grandfather had one. The ones I have made are in Colorado, New Mexico, Minnesota and soon in Montana.

By now you probably know more about taborettes than you ever wanted to know.


Thursday, November 6, 2008

New Mexico Timeline - The Historical Period

Click on the image to make it larger.

1536 - Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, Estevan the Moor, Andres Dorantes and Alonso Castillo de Maldonado wander through parts of Southern New Mexico before reaching Culican, Mexico.

1540 - 1542 - Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores present day Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. A number of women are with the expedition, wives of soldiers. The first introduction of the horse and other domestic animals into the present day United States.

1581 - Augustin Rodriguez and some soldiers led by Francisco Sanchez Chamuscado leads an expedition into New Mexico.

1582 - 1583 - Bernardino Beltran and Antonio de Espejo comes to New Mexico with a small group with Antonio de Espejo naming himself as commander. 

1590 - 1591 - Gaspar Castano de Sosa leads 170 men women and children to New Mexico. The "entrada" was illegal, leaders were arrested and the colony abandoned.

1598 - don Juan de Onate, along with numerous soldier/colonists, takes possession of the area called New Mexico for the monarchs of Spain.

1680 - The Pueblo Indians revolt and expel the Spanish colonists from New Mexico. The surviving Spanish colonists retreat and establish El Paso.

1692 - don Diego de Vargas returns to New Mexico.

1693 - Colonists resettle New Mexico.

1695 - New colonists arrive in New Mexico from Zacatecas.

1720 - The Villasur expedition is launched to search for French intruders and are ambushed neat current day Columbus, Nebraska by Oto Indians and French allies.

1821 - New Mexico ceases to be a province of Spain and becomes a part of the new nation of Mexico. The Santa Fe trail officially opens.

1846 - August, Stephen Watts Kearney annexes New Mexico to the United States. Military rule is established.

1847 - The first American governor, Charles Bent is killed in Taos during an unsuccessful rebellion by New Mexicans against the United States.

1850 - Military rule ends and New Mexico becomes a territory. The area of "New Mexico" at that time included parts of Southern Colorado, Utah, Southern Nevada and Arizona.

1868 - Arizona is separated from New Mexico.

1912 - New Mexico becomes the 47th State.

Friday, October 31, 2008

Who Were the Founding Fathers? Yours mine and Theirs....




Lets see..... Who were the founding fathers?

Francisco Coronado? Don Juan de Onate? Pope'? Don Diego de Vargas? George Washington, Don Juan de Anza? Cuerno Verde? Manuelito? Sitting Bull? Satanta?

I would venture a guess that this all depends on who you were when whatever you considered your country crystalized in your mind. Navajos in the 1870's did not consider any American, Mexican or whatever, a founding father. And who do Navajos consider their "founding father's" today? I do not know any Navajos, but I bet not many would call George Washington a "founding father".

The reason I give this example is because I feel the same way. I have a hard time relating to a conversation when someone mentions "founding fathers". And I know several Native Americans and they all feel this way. I have never had one Native American claim George Washington. 

Friday, October 24, 2008

El Taborette


These are pictures of a stool that was once owned by my grandfather, Roman Benavidez.  Click on the image if you want to see the larger version. The story I heard was that he found it on the tracks of the AT&SF when he used to work there in the early part of the last century. He called it a "taborette". Do a Google search on the word, there are many of these things floating around.

Anyway, this particular piece is now in the hands of my nephew somewhere in the vicinity of Salt Lake City, UT. I have made several similar to this out of 2x4 lumber and use them as an end table or a plant stand. But my grandfather used to lug this one all around the house, inside and out. On the ones that I have made, the top is more of an octagon than the one shown here. I have given them to relatives who knew of the taborette and wanted one. There is one in Minnesota, several in Colorado and several in New Mexico and soon there will be one in Montana. I got the idea from this one here.

Anyway, just made 3 more this last month. Had to replace some that I had given away. I might try and make them out of regular 1" lumber and see how they come out. The entire family seems to like them because my grandfather had this one. 

Thursday, September 25, 2008

Forefathers


This is a picture of the statue of don Diego de Vargas near the cathedral in Santa Fe. Click on the image to enlarge it.

You think our forefathers might be different? That my forefathers might differ from yours? You think mine came here looking for religious freedom? Think again!  You think my forefathers wanted to be free of taxation (Boston Tea Party)? Squanto, remember Squanto?

My forefathers never did encounter Squanto, nor did they ever hear of him. In fact I do not think any Native New Mexicans in New Mexico ever heard about Squanto till the late 1940's or early 1950's when they started adding American History to the curriculum.

Anyway, my forefathers did not come here to have "religious freedom". Not by a long stretch. Nor did they come here to get away from taxation. They came because of the three G's, God, glory and gold. Not necessarily in that order.

In New Mexico, for New Mexican Hispanics, our forefathers were don Juan de Onate, don Diego de Vargas, don Juan de Anza, maybe even the Indian Pope and Cureno Verde. Not George Washington, not Patrick Henry!

Lets make a deal, I will adopt yours when you adopt mine.


Friday, September 12, 2008

Esquipula Padilla

Click on the image to make it larger.

Esquipula Padilla having a cigarette with a cup of coffee in front of the kitchen stove at his house in Rowe, New Mexico. Circa 1960.

This is a neat picture of a relative of mine who lived next door to us in Rowe in the late 1950's and early 1960's. His name was Esquipula Padilla. He was one of my favorite relatives. He was always willing to spend time with family. I remember all of the neighborhood boys going to his house on a Friday evening in the winter to play cards. We used stick matches to make bets, or the paper book matches which were worth 10 stick matches. Sometimes we would end up going home at 2:30 or 3:00 AM. Playing poker for matches, can you imagine.

I also remember going rabbit hunting with him in the winter just after a snowfall. He had a .22 Cal. rifle and would take 5 shells and come home with  2 - 3 rabbits.

Actually he and his wife, Guadalupe Archuleta, and children lived in Colorado for a while, then in Rowe and finally in Cerillos, New Mexico. I last saw him in 1999, shortly before he passed away. He was then living with his daughter in an area close to the honor farm in the the Los Lunas area.

Saturday, August 23, 2008

Almost All Gone



Click on the image to make it larger.

This is a good pen and ink drawing of my maternal uncle, Abel Benavidez. The pen and ink was drawn by Roark Griffin in 1976. My mother doctored it up by writing on the corner "27 of Feb". And then someone else added the glasses. So the original is somewhat marred. But it is an amazing likeness. I am sure Mr. Griffin would not mind.

Abel was born 18 March 1909 the son of Roman Benavidez and Ignacia Archuleta in Rowe, New Mexico and passed away on 5 August 2008 in Colorado Springs. Ninety nine years and then some. In previous posts here I have posted a picture of his business in Rowe, New Mexico. It was the Midway Bar and Grocery.

He worked in the mines in the Pecos Canyon at Terrero, New Mexico in the late 1920's and 1930's. He was enumerated in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census at Terrero as a miner and living with his sister and brother in law as well as a niece.  I know that he worked for the CCC because he told me so, not sure where he worked with them. At some time he also worked for a time logging north of La Madera, New Mexico. He told me he saw a train car with only 3 logs on it from that area. This was because no more logs fit on the car. Seems like they had railroad spurs all over the canyons up there during that time. During the second world war he worked in the shipyards in California. After the war, he came back to Rowe and opened up the bar/grocery store/filling station. 

The Midway Bar and Grocery was a place that was very prominent on U.S. 85 on the road between Santa Fe and Las Vegas, you could not miss it. Especially in the pre I-25 era. He sold the liquor licence in the late 1960's and continued to sell gas and groceries until he sold the business. He worked at the Glorietta Baptist Assembly and retired from there only to go to work at La Fonda Hotel in Santa Fe. He worked there until he finally decided to quit. Then he stayed busy hauling wood from Rowe Mesa and tending the best garden in Rowe.

I only know of one other person from his Benavidez family and generation that is still alive. She is in a rest home in Las Vegas. Today she is 102 years and 8 months old. Her name is Flora Benavidez Ortiz, Abels first cousin.

They are almost all gone!




Tuesday, August 19, 2008

Word Smithing in History




Kit Carson was "unlettered".
New Mexicans were "illiterate".

Unlettered and illiterate are one and the same. But unlettered seems kinder.

Americans dressed in "buckskins".
New Mexicans dressed in "animal skins".

Again, no difference in meaning, but one sounds better than the other.

These are some examples of the word smithing folks use. Sometimes it is done intentionally and sometimes not. They are particularly plentiful when people are in conflict. Like now with the Iraq war and like then, when the Americans first got to New Mexico. Usually it is done to vilify one group and raise the status of another. 

On another post on this blog I posted of one man, hung as a traitor, hung for treason for daring to plot against the United States in early 1847, less than a year after the Americans invaded and occupied New Mexico and most of Northern Mexico. He was don Antonio Maria Trujillo. What would we call an American today who plotted against an invader that had been here less than a year and planned to stay forever as ruler? We would call him/her a hero/heroine.  But don Antonio Maria Trujillo went down in history as a traitor.

Watch out for those types of word smithing in the history of New Mexico.

Saturday, August 2, 2008

IGNORANCE OF THE READER vs IGNORANCE OF THE WRITER vs PLAIN OLD IGNORANCE



The first picture is of an unidentified Mexican woman oh horseback. The second image is of a chart that depicts Spanish racial classifications during the conquest of the Americas. Click on the image to see a larger picture of racial classifications during the Spanish era in New Mexico.



I was looking for some information on a particular individual in the 1910 Federal Census and it took me to Conejos County Colorado. I found the individual in question in 1910 Federal Census for Conejos Counry in  Los Pinos. Anyway I was surprised to find out that the individual is listed as a mullato. I did a little more checking to see if his family was listed as mulatto. They sure were! I did a bit more checking and I find out the whole community is listed as mulatto! Now I know a lot of folks in Los Pinos and do not know a single mulatto. So I check some more and I see where the census taker's W looks close to his M's. The census taker was Jose B Romero.

So I check on and go to San Rafael, CO which the same individual was doing the census taking. Anyway, here is an individual born in Indiana, a Charles Emmerson.  Here is where I compare the W for white in column 5 with the M for male in column 6. They are similar, but not the same. a couple of lines down there is an individual by the name of Elias Quintana. Now I compare the M for "whatever" in column No. 5 with the M for male in column No. 6. They are the same!!!!!

I Think Jose B. Romero was using the M for Mexican, not Mulatto !!!!!!!!! Whoever transcribed the actual image made the mistake, Mr. Romero's penmanship is not good, but it is not that bad. But by interpreting the M as being for mulatto instead of the M being for Mexican someone made a huge blunder. The moral of the story is "checks your data" before you determine they are facts.

Friday, August 1, 2008

Indians (Navajos) in New Mexican Households


The picture above I found on the Internet, no name was associated with the picture other than Navajo woman in Spanish dress. It fit todays subject.


182 Navajos in Hispanic homes in Rio Arriba County in 1870. That is a lot of Navajos, boys and girls and some women. That according to the Federal Census. Reference the publication titled "Herencia, The Quarterly Journal of the Hispanic Genealogical Research Center of New Mexico, in Volume 16, Issue 3, July 2008".  This article was researched and written by a lady by the name of Lorraine Aguilar. 


I was surprised so I looked at the census myself and she is correct. In her article she notes she was just looking for Navajos. And there were other Indians, not Navajo, living in other households. So I went to look in San Miguel, Colfax, Valencia, Taos, Socorro and Mora counties in the 1870's. Lo and behold, none that I could find.


Well, there were less than 10 Indians living in Hispano households in Arroyo Hondo in Taos County. In one Arroyo Hondo household there was Felipe Talachi age 64, an Indian and Lorenza, age 56 keeping house. Lorenza was listed as white. Also Josefa, a 35 year old listed as an indian and finally Dolores age 3 and listed as white. The Talachi household seems to be a mixed race place.


So were the folks in Rio Arriba County the only ones who had Navajos, or other Indians,  living with them? What was going on in 1870? The census taker in Rio Arriba was Trinidad Alarid, in San Miguel it was Demetrio Perez. In Taos County it was Juan Santistevan. Judging by their writing, they seem to read and write well, so they had a fair amount of education. So why the discrepency? Was one or two advised to note this and the other not? Was one inclined to note this and the other not? Did one recognize the Indians and the other not?


Trinidad Alarid nor Juan Santistevan would not have known who was and who was not Indian, Navajo or otherwise. They had to have asked, they had to. Otherwise why would Trinidad Alarid have some born in Navajo Country and other Indians born in New Mexico. He was asking. Now was he asking for the purpose of being thorough? Was he instructed to ask or just inclined to ask? If I had to guess I would say he was inclined to be thorough, at least as compared to Mr. Demetrio Perez who was working San Miguel County. There could not be that many in Rio Arriba County and none in San Miguel County. And keep in mind there were only 13 counties then, so they had to be bigger. 

Thursday, July 31, 2008

De Hidalgos a Peon's, Que Paso?


Hispanic New Mexican's who came north from Mexico with don Juan de Onate in 1598 were promised "hidalgo" status for their efforts if they stayed here a specified amount of time. Now hidalgo status was a granting of nobility at it's lowest rung. Yet by the time the United States annexed the province there were mostly folks whom the Americans classified as peon's, landless poor.


Here is what I think happened. and there seems to be several causes.


1) Between the "entrada" in 1598 and Mexican Independence from Spain on Sep. 16, 1821 New Mexicans of every stripe were ignored by the Spanish authorities in both Mexico City and Madrid, Spain. Utterly ignored by any measure being used at the time. By being ignored by their government my ancestors had to make do with what they had on hand, they had to adjust, adapt AND adopt. Adjust to the fact hidalgo status was not worth what they had been led to believe, adapt to the local conditions and adopt methods of survival used by the Indians. Especially when they could not go back, it was decreed that abondoning the colony was not to be condoned. And in reality it was enforced. They could not leave so they had to adjust, and they did.

2) Between Sep. 16 1821 and when the Americans occupied the province on Aug. 15, 1846 New Mexicans were further ignored by the new government in Mexico City. But by this time they had adapted to the harsh conditions. And hidalgo status be dammed, you had to survive. And the way to survive was to copy the Indians just as they had been doing before. They had been surviving here for untold generations.

3) My ancestors were seen as landless poor by the Americans as they came here and they documented that. By comparison my ancestors may have been poor, but most were landless only in the way the Americans viewed land ownership. Most land was held by individuals or by community grantees as mercedes or land grants. But most of the American who came early, fur trappers, did not appreciate the New Mexicans and they did not hesitate to document it, if they could write, by word of mouth if they couldn't. The traders who started arriving a bit later , but still in the early 1800's, thought the same way, and most of them could document this in writing. When the Army of the west arrived on Aug. 15, 1846 the "peon" label was attached to all with the glue provided by writings of the military. And it stuck. 

Thursday, July 24, 2008

Jews in New Mexico in the Spanish Era


A relative and a friend offered a subscription to the magazine "La Herencia". The magazine is great reading, but it is not a genuine "historical" document. A good read, but too much mitote in there. There are some great stories in there and I like the publication, it is just that there are many stories in there from New Mexican families claiming to be Jews.

Where is the proof? Who were our ancestors who were "Jews"? Name one, or two or three! There is no documented evidence that any people of the Jewish faith came north with either don Juan de Onate or don Diego de Vargas. There is no evidence of any Jews coming north from Mexico period. Yet there are many that claim to be Jews and from the same time periods discussed here. And I can't be blamed for not looking, I have read several books dedicated to the subject. And at best it states that there could have been some Jews in the colonists of either Onate or Vargas. "Could have been" is a long ways from proof, a very long way.

Some are even attempting to use DNA as proof. My thoughts on that is "how does DNA determine religion. At best it might point to a Semitic race. If it does point in that direction, the odds are that it would be Arab as compared to Jewish. The Arabs, and lots of them,  were in Spain over 700 years. 

Jews were there also, but at some point they were forced to convert or leave. It is these that everyone seems to be "connecting" to. It is stated that even if one could trace a family member to one of these there would be no more "Jewish" customs OR religious customs in the 20th and 21st century.

Now the Spanish had no love for either as documented by their efforts to get rid of the Arabs and convert or expel the Jews. So maybe a few "conversos" did make it through. But 400 and some years later no trace is left of them. The religious folks were diligent in this effort and some were accused and taken to Mexico in chains only to be found innocent.

Now in the early 1800 they did start to arrive, but from the United States. A lot of them, and maybe they intermarried with the locals. That is a distinct possibility and probability. But don't let folks tell you that all Spanish names are in reality Jewish words. That is just not true, no matter who states it. Ask for proof and none is forthcoming.

Saturday, July 5, 2008

Peasants and Peons in New Mexico AND the United States in the Mid 1800's


The first image is a photo titled "peon". And the second image is of a peasant, click on them to make them larger.

The early history of New Mexico's people dealing with "Americans" begins just prior to the Spanish being expelled from New Mexico by the new rulers of the soon to be named "Mexico". So in reality New Mexico was here before the country of Mexico came into being. Mexico came into being in the early 1800 as it aquired it's independance from Spain and New Mexico was already New Mexico in the mid to late 1500's. Anyway, just prior to the overthrow of the Spanish New Mexico had begun to see "Americans". They came first as trappers and then as traders on the Santa Fe Trail.

And make no mistake about it, the traders, in particular, were spies first and traders second. They were carrying back to the "States" stories of the wealth, or lack therof, in New Mexico. New Mexico's strengths and weaknesses. They tended to refer to the people here, my ancestors, as peasants or peons. They used these words in pejorative terms. Wikepedia defines this as "Words and phrases are pejorative if they imply disapproval or contempt. The adjective pejorative is synonymous with derogatory, derisive, dyslogistic, and contemptuous. When used as a noun, pejorative means "a belittling or disparaging word or expression".

I have always wondered if there were any peasants in Kearney's Army of the West?  Were there any peons in Kearney's Army of the West? Were there any pesants or peons back in the "states"? Anyway, do a search on Google and you will soon see that there were indeed both peasants and peons in the "states" back in the mid 1800's. A lot more than in New Mexico as the population of the "States", as compared to New Mexico, was huge. Huge! But they did not refer to them as such. Only Mexicans were pesants and peons.

Anyway, I never heard the term pesant when I was growing up. But I did hear the term peon. And it was not a bad word. It was used to describe a worker. And not someone held against their will. My grandfather would sometimes refer to us as his peon's. Always with affection. But it goes to show how the word can be used by different folks and give it a completely different meaning. But I will have to admit that using the dictionary meaning for the terms, a lot of my ancestors were, in non-pejorative terms, pesants and peons.

Friday, July 4, 2008

Las Ruedas, New Mexico to Rowe, New Mexico, the Transition

The last mention that I can find of Las Ruedas, New Mexico as a community is from page 22 of the publication New Mexico Marriages Pecos, October 1862 to April 1904 and published by the Hispanic Genealogical Research Center of New Mexico. 

There it states "January 31 of 1881. I married Manuel Archuleta, single, legitimate son of Ramon Archuleta and Gertrudes Newman with Marta Alari, daughter of Matias Alari and Josefa Valencia, from Las Ruedas. Padrinos were Francisco Archuleta and Maria Montoya."

Then the first mention of Rowe, New Mexico is from page 26 of the very same publication. There it states " November 15, 1889. I married and veiled Catalino Sanchez, single, son of Ramon Sanchez and of Luz Lobato with Maria Segura, single, daughter of Manuel Segura, deceased, and of Cristina Archuleta, from Rowe. Padrinos were Ramon Archuleta and Eulalia Neuman."

Seems like Ramon was there at the end of the line for Las Ruedas and the beginning of Rowe, New Mexico.

My guess is that the movement of people from the Los Trigos Land Grant, of which Las Ruedas and Pajarito seem to have been the only towns, was essentially from Las Ruedas to Rowe and some to Pajarito as the work on the railroad created the jobs people needed to survive. 

Friday, June 27, 2008

What is the possibility? What is the probability?

This is a picture of Sebestiana Benavidez. Click on the image to make it larger. It has been copied too many times. Sorry about that.


Marianna Duran, one of my maternal great grandmothers, was born circa 1834 in Teseque, New Mexico. There has been a persistant story that she was a Tesuque Indian and married one of my maternal great grand fathers, Juan de Jesus Archuleta. It is known that he was much, much older than her. Thirty six (36) or there abouts. Juan de Jesus had been married before. These stories can only be attributed to Marianna's daughter, my grandmother or Marianna's grand children, my mother and uncles. They all knew her. And there is a church record that does list Marianna as the "adoptive" daughter of Pablo Duran. The term "Adoptive" was sometimes used to indicate Indian children taken into Hispanic homes.

Sebastiana Benavidez is my great grand aunt.  Our common ancestors are Jose Rafael Benavidez and Maria Dolores Garcia de Alviar. She is the sister of one of my paternal great grandmother's, Maria Simona Benavidez. In my records I have no information on either Sebestianas birth date or birth place. It is my guess she was born some where around 1843 - 1848. I base this on the fact that she married Pedro L'Esperence in March of 1863. I do know that some of my great grandmothers siblings were born in Tesuque.

Anyway there is an article in June 2008, Volume Number 47, Issue Number 2 of the New Mexico Genealogist, The Journal of the New Mexico Genealogical Society by Laurie Tavino Pioggia that makes a case for Sebestiana being an Indian from Tesuque Pueblo. The author states there that Sebestiana's grand daughter Constancia L'Esperance left written information on a family bible that indicated that was indeed the case. And that Sebestiana was adopted by the Benavidez family.

Now what is the chance that the family of my great grandmother Marianna, living in Tesuque in the time period when she was born, 1834, and the family of Sebestiana, born circa 1843 - 1848, knew each other? I think there is a very good chance that they did indeed know each other. Now what is the chance that both of these women were Tesuque Indians? That is harder to determine, It certainly is possible, but is it probable? Who knows. The author of the article and I have communicated via email and over the phone and discussed Sebestiana.

Any way, it is interesting to speculate. And the author certainly has better information on Sebestiana than I do. And she also has better information on Sebestiana than I do on Mariana. I have some unanswered questions on the relationship  my great grandfather, Juan de Jesus Archuleta, had with the family of his father in law Pablo Duran in Tesuque, New Mexico. You see his first wife was a woman named Maria Antonia Duran who was the daughter of a man named Jose Duran. Seems like there were quite a few Benavidez, Archuletas and Duran's living in the area.

Also one needs to keep in mind that there are two Tesuque's. The Indian Pueblo and the old Hispanic village. Located in close proximity to each other.


Saturday, June 21, 2008

Las Ruedas, New Mexico in 1870, Demographics

Las Ruedas, New Mexico was a Hispanic community located on the Pecos River below present day Rowe, New Mexico. The census was taken on the 26th of July in 1870 by the census taker Demetrio Perez. The village consisted of 84 people in 19 households. 

Three Americans had married into the local Hispano community, Samuel Dean Jr. Born in Maine, John B. Boles born in Virginia and O.P. Anderson born in Georgia. Roque Samaron was listed as being born in Mexico and he also married into the local Hispano community.

Personal notes: I knew Marta Alarid , then age 8. I knew her in the 1950's living in Rowe, New Mexico. Pablo Archuleta the younger was the son of the older Pablo Archuleta here. Also Felix Sameron, here 2 months old, would  in 1905, along with his wife Maria de los Angles Flores, baptize my mother, Maria del Refugio Benavidez.

1 - Antonio Ortiz age 55 a farm laborer who could read but not write.
His wife Albina a houskeeper age 40 who could not read nor write.
Agapito, age 23 a farm laborer who could not read nor write.

2 - Samuel Dean Jr. age 31 a farm laborer who could read and write. Samuel was born in Maine.
His wife Juliana a housekeeper age 19 who could not read nor write.
Cruz age 2.
Roberto at 5 months old.
Juana Archuleta age 12 who could not read nor write.
Victor age 7.

3 - Miguel Sena age 45 a carpenter who could read and write.
His wife Ynes a housekeeper age 38 who could not read nor write.
Justo age 18, a farm laborer who could not read nor write.
Cecilio age 15 living "at home" and could not read nor write.

4 - Matias Alarid age 49 a blacksmith who could not read nor write.
His wife Josefa a housekeeper age 40 who could not read nor write.
Gertrudis a seamstress, age 18 who could not read nor write.
Jose de la Cruz age 10 and who could not read nor write.
Marta age 8. 
Casamiro age 6.
Maria 7 months old.
Nicolas listed as age 15 and a domestic servant who could not read nor write. 

5 - Gregorio Gonzales age 37, a farm laborer who could not read nor write.
His wife Ygnacia a houskeeper age 38 who could not read nor write.
Jesus Gutierrez age 13 living "at home" who could read but not write.
Jose age 3.

6 - Jose Antonio Valencia age 33, a farm laborer who could not read nor write.
His wife Ramona a houskeeper age 18  who could not read nor write and whom Jose Antonio married the previous January.

7 - Antonio Maria Archuleta age 66, a farm laborer who could not read nor write.
Luis a farm laborer age 33 who could not read nor write.

8 - Pedro Barranca age 55, a farm loborer who could both read and write.
His wife Maria de la cruz a houskeeper age 34 who could not read nor write.

9 - Ponciano Archuleta age 28, a farm laborer who could read but not write.
His wife Salome a houskeeper age 25 who could not read nor write.
Manuel age 8.
Teresa age 5.
Candalerio age 2.

10 - Francisco Archuleta a farm laborer age 25 who could read but not write.
His wife Mariana a housekeeper age 15 who could not read nor write.
2 month old son Eugenio.

11 - Francisca Lovato a housekeeper age 64 who could not read nor write.
Juan J. Montoya age 22, a farm laborer who could both read and write.
Dario age 19, a farm laborer who could not read nor write.
Leonardo age 15, living "at home" and who could both read and write.
Manuela age 12 and living "at home" and who could not read nor write.

12 - Pablo Archuleta age 64, a farm laborer who could not read nor write.
His wife Dorotea a housekeeper age 64 who could not read nor write.
Marcos age 38 a farm laborer who could both read and write.
Pedro age 37 a farm laborer who could neither read nor write.
Sotero age 28 a farm laborer who could read but not write.
Antonio age 19 and a farm laborer who could not read nor write.
Albino a ge 25 and a faarm laborer who could not read nor write.
Maria de Jesus a washerwoman age 19.

13 - Pablo Archuleta age 33, a farm laborer who could read but not write.
His wife Trinidad a Housekeeper age 25 who could not read nor write.
Ricarda age 8.

14 - Jesus Valencia age 36, a farm laborer who could read but not write.
His wife Salome a housekeeper age 26 who could not read nor write.
Maria a seamstress age 16.
Zeferina living at home at age 12 and could not read nor write.
Rosario living at home and could not read nor write.
Juan age 4.
Alcario age 2.

15 - Roque Samaron age 32 a farm labor who could not read nor write. Roque was born in Mexico.
His wife Librada a housekeeper age 24 who could not read nor write.
Felix at 2 months old.

16 -  Juan Maria Martinez age 51, a farm laborer who could not read nor write.
His wife Isabel a housekeeper age 40 who could not read nor write.
Domingo age 12 living at home and who could not read nor write.

17 - Juan Encinias age 58, a farm laborer who could not read nor write.
His wife Estefana a housekeeper age 50 who could not read nor write. .
Pablo age 26, a farm laborer who could not read nor write.
Matilde a seamstress age 23 who could not read nor write.
Anastacio age 15 living at home and who could not read nor write.
Cresencio age 9.
Juan age 7.

18 - John B. Boles age 43, a farm laborer who could both read and write. John was born in Virginia.
His wife Manuela a houskeeper age 21 who could not read nor write.
Manuelita age 3.
Thomas G. age 1.
Maria de Jesus Sena a washerwoman age 75 who could not read nor write.

19 - O.P. Anderson age 56 a farm laborer who could read but not write. O.P. was born in Georgia.
His wife Antonia a housekeeper age 40 who could read but not write.
Severiano age 14 living at home and who could both read and write.
Isidora age 5.